|Year : 2015 | Volume
| Issue : 1 | Page : 32-37
The Effect of Different Bed Compositions on Sod Characteristics in Production and Establishment Stages
Fatemeh Ahmadian Vala1, Davood Naderi1, Masoud Ghasemi Ghahsareh2
1 Department of Horticultural, Islamic Azad University, Isfahan Branch, Isfahan, Iran
2 Department of Horticultural, Shahre-kord University, Shahre-kord, Chahar Mahal Va Bakhtiari, Iran
|Date of Web Publication||3-Jul-2015|
Department of Horticultural, Islamic Azad University, Isfahan Branch, Isfahan
Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None
Nowadays, many investigations are done on plants waste that can be used as bio soil amendments. The use of biological fertilizers instead of chemical ones has been considered widely because of environmental issues importance. Cultivation beds have some influence on both stability and quality of sod. The current study was done to assess the impact of 5 soil compounds on two steps of bermudagrass sod production (cultivation in cartonplast and establishment) as a completely randomized design with three replicates. The soil compounds were clay, sand and spent mushroom compost in different compositions. Our results showed that at the time of lawn cultivation in cartonplast, the highest clipping fresh and dry weight and the best plant density were related to clay + spent mushroom compost (1:1) (v.v). We also found that the best color quality was related to clay + spent mushroom compost (1:1) (v.v), sand + spent mushroom compost (1:1) (v.v), clay + sand + spent mushroom compost (1:1:1) (v.v.v) bed while the lowest height of shoots was related to clay + sand (1:1) (v.v). In the second phase of the experiments, the highest clipping fresh and dry weight was related to clay + spent mushroom compost (1:1) (v.v), sand + spent mushroom compost (1:1) (v.v) bed. The highest shoots height was related to those beds too. The lowest establishment time was related to sand + spent mushroom compost (1:1) (v.v) bed. Finally, our results showed that spent mushroom compost can be used as a useful organic fertilizer which improves soil physical and chemical characteristics.
Keywords: Bermudagrass, cartonplast, cultivation bed, sod, spent mushroom compost
|How to cite this article:|
Vala FA, Naderi D, Ghahsareh MG. The Effect of Different Bed Compositions on Sod Characteristics in Production and Establishment Stages. J Earth Environ Health Sci 2015;1:32-7
|How to cite this URL:|
Vala FA, Naderi D, Ghahsareh MG. The Effect of Different Bed Compositions on Sod Characteristics in Production and Establishment Stages. J Earth Environ Health Sci [serial online] 2015 [cited 2020 Sep 24];1:32-7. Available from: http://www.ijeehs.org/text.asp?2015/1/1/32/159925
| Introduction|| |
Sodding is one of the best important methods in lawn establishment and recovery that includes the transplanting mature turf from production site to a destination site. Bed composition plays an important role in sod production process. Compost products are valuable fertilizers considering their organic and nutrient content. ,, Catalysis makes the compost process faster which can convert organic materials to stable and useful materials with changing their physical and chemical characteristics as well as waste contents excretion. , Raw organic materials also catalyze simple compounds products by microorganisms in compost preparation process as mentioned by Mohammadi Ghehsareh et al.  The use of compost in cultivation beds has some advantages including plants enhanced access to nutrients,  erosion and runoff reduction,  physical soil structure and water balance improvement , and vermi compost was also used instead of usual and chemical fertilizer.  Ghazimeanas et al.  in a study which has investigated the influence of different amounts of vermi compost fertilizer and nitrogen on qualitative and quantitative functions of Matricaria chamomilla L. found that there was a direct relationship between plant dry weight and vermi compost amount. The results of a study which were done by Hu and Barker  showed that agricultural waste compost increased the uptake of some elements such as magnesium, calcium, potassium, phosphorus, and nitrogen in tomato leaf. Considering the widespread application of lawn in our landscape and international approach toward natural resources protection, lower use of chemical fertilizers and their replacement with biological fertilizers, it seems that compost can be used as a useful and efficient bed in sustainable agriculture. Considering the high content of organic matters and low amount of heavy metals in mushroom composts,  we used it as a useful and efficient factor in our treatments. The current study was done to compare impacts of various beds on sod production.
| Materials and Methods|| |
The study was conducted between 2013 and 2014 in research greenhouse of agriculture department, Islamic Azad University Isfahan (Khorasgan) Branch. For sod production, cartonplasts with dimensions of 150 cm × 60 cm × 20 cm were used. The bottom of cartonplasts was punctured to make drainage and covered with leca to help both drainage and aeration. Cartonplasts up to 4 cm were filled with soil mixture, and seeding was done on them. In each plot, 20 g bermudagrass seeds were sprinkled that were covered with a thin layer of spent mushroom compost. The layer of compost acts as a mulch on seeds to prevent their movement before germination. This experiment was planned as a completely randomized design with five treatments and three repetitions in two phases as follow:
- Planting in cartonplast,
- Establishment in main field.
The characteristics of spent mushroom compost, clay and sand have been mentioned in [Table 1] and [Table 2]. During the study, a perfect fertilizer was used 4 times (25 g/m 2 ). The plots were irrigated twice per week in fall and winter and once per day in spring and summer (3 l/plot). Grass was mowed every week. Rotten manure (4 kg/m 2 ) was mixed with soil and plowed to prepare soil for plant establishment Thereafter, a rake was used to throw out lumps and roll out to make the surface of cultivation environment flat and even. Statistical analysis of data was done using SAS software. The comparison between means was used by Duncan test, and P < 5% was statistically significant. Microsoft Office Excel 2007 was used for drawing all diagrams. A millimeter ruler was used for measuring the height of lawn and the distance between soil surface to leaf tip in five points, and the mean of all measurements was considered as lawn height in each plot. All characteristics were measured every two weeks. For measuring clipping fresh weight in each plot, lawn was moved to the height of 5 cm and immediately weighted. Then samples were kept in 70°C for 48 h to measure their dry weight. Weight assessments were done after lawn mowing, and the mean of all data was calculated at the end of the study. Appearance evaluation of lawn was done using a combination of some factors such as color, density, uniformity, and height.  Plant density was graded from 1 to 9 by a professional valuator based on National Turfgrass Evaluation Program, which is a visible grading method. Based on the method, number 9 is considered as perfect and <5 is unsuitable. At the end of the study, three samples were harvested randomly using a 5 cm × 5 cm frame. In general, six leaves were separated from each sample, and the leaf area index was measured. Finally, all the numbers divided to 18 and their means were calculated. Root volume was measured using volumetric method.
| Results and Discussion|| |
Data analysis of variance indicated that bed treatment affected lawn height in cartonplast cultivation and in establishment phase significantly (P value 0.01 and 0.001) [Table 3] and [Table 4]. The mean comparison showed that the lowest height in cartonplast cultivation was related to clay + sand (1:1) (v.v), bed while we didn't find any significant differences between other treatments [Figure 1]. In establishment phase, the highest height was related to the bed of clay + spent mushroom compost (1:1) (v.v) and sand + spent mushroom compost (1:1) (v.v) [Figure 2]. It seems that the presence of compost in beds induces shoots growth because higher amount of organic compound in these beds preserves soil moisture and improves its structure. Hussain et al.  and Singh and Agarwal  reported that cow manure had a positive impact on wheat shoot height. Maaswinkel and Gunadi  examined the influence of perlite and rice chisel cultivation on pepper growth and function. They found that the plants that had been grown in rice chisel were longer and had better function in comparison to those that grown in perlite.
|Figure 1: Mean comparison of various beds on sod shoots height in sod cultivation in cartonplast|
Click here to view
|Figure 2: Mean comparison of various beds on sod shoots height in sod establishment in main field|
Click here to view
|Table 3: Statistical analysis data of the effect of various beds on growth characteristics of sod in first stage (sod cultivation|
Click here to view
|Table 4: Statistical analysis of the effect of various beds on growth characteristics of sod in second stage (sod establishment in main field)|
Click here to view
Clipping fresh and dry weight
Statistical analysis of our data showed that clipping fresh and dry weight in both phases of our study have been affected by the beds treatment significantly (P value 0.001) [Table 3] and [Table 4]. The highest clipping fresh and dry weight in cartonplast cultivation was related to clay + spent mushroom compost bed (1:1) (v.v) [Figure 3] and [Figure 4]. The highest clipping fresh and dry weight in establishment phase of the study was related to clay + spent mushroom compost (1:1) (v.v) and sand + spent mushroom compost (1:1) (v.v) [Figure 5] and [Figure 6]. Based on the results, it appears that a sufficient amount of nutrients in beds which containing compost led to weight enhancement. Khattak et al.  reported that mushroom compost increased leaf fresh weight in the periwinkle plant. it is also reported that dry weight of tomato, calendula, and pepper increase as a result of vermi compost use (Bachman and Metzger 2008). It has been reported that mineral elements enhancement during compost processing is the main factor that increases plants growth. 
|Figure 3: Mean comparison of various beds on clipping fresh weight in cartonplast|
Click here to view
|Figure 4: Mean comparison of various beds on clipping dry weight in cartonplast|
Click here to view
|Figure 5: Mean comparison of various beds on clipping fresh weight in establishment time in main field|
Click here to view
|Figure 6: Mean comparison of various beds on clipping dry weight in establishment time in main field|
Click here to view
Leaf area index
We found that leaf area index in beds consisted of clay + spent mushroom compost (1:1) (v.v), sand + spent mushroom compost (1:1) (v.v) and clay + sand (1:1) (v.v), was higher than other treatments [Figure 7]. Photosynthesis which affects plant growth mainly happens in leaves,  and its efficiency that detects plants growth and power reflected by leaf area index. 
Root volumes also in plants cultivated in treated beds showed significant effects [Table 3] (P value 0.05). The highest root volume was seen in beds containing clay + spent mushroom compost (1:1) (v.v), sand + spent mushroom compost (1:1) (v.v) and clay + sand (1:1) (v.v) [Figure 8]. These beds are porous and can keep moisture as a result roots develop in them easily, and their volumes increase.
Statistical analysis of our findings showed that both in sod cultivation and establishment stages beds treatment affected plant density significantly (P value 0.01) [Table 3] and [Table 4]. The highest density of plant during cartonplast cultivation was related to the bed of clay + spent mushroom compost (1:1) (v.v) while the highest density in field establishment was related to clay + spent mushroom compost (1:1) (v.v) and sand + spent mushroom compost bed (1:1) (v.v) [Figure 9] and [Figure 10]. Spent Mushroom compost increased plant density because its organic substances improve agricultural properties of cultivation bed. Other studies also showed that plant development was related to fertility parameters of soil.  Thus, the improvement of physical, chemical, and biological characteristics of cultivation beds by composts (Bachman and Metzger 2008)  increase plants growth.
|Figure 9: Mean comparison of various beds on plant density in sod cultivation in cartonplast|
Click here to view
|Figure 10: Mean comparison of various beds on plant density in sod establishment in main field|
Click here to view
Color quality was affected by beds treatment significantly in cartonplast production phase (P value 0.001) [Table 3] and was insignificant in establishment phase [Table 4]. The best color quality was related to beds of clay + spent mushroom compost (1:1) (v.v), sand + spent mushroom compost (1:1) (v.v) and clay + sand + spent mushroom compost (1:1:1) (v.v.v) [Figure 11]. It seems that beds with contain compost can keep a higher amount of water and nutrient especially nitrogen. Previous studies also reported that organic compounds can affect superficial characteristics of lawn.  Rodriguez and Miller  also mentioned that there is a high correlation between chlorophyll content and the color of Augustine grass. We believe that the nitrogen content of compost can prevent chlorophyll destruction and increase the visible quality of lawn.
|Figure 11: Mean comparison of various beds on sod color quality in sod cultivation in cartonplast|
Click here to view
The treatment of beds affected sod establishment significantly based on statistical analysis of our data [Table 4] (P value 0.001). The comparison of mean showed that the lowest establishment time was related to sand + spent mushroom compost beds (1:1) (v.v) [Figure 12]. Compost and sand have porous structure as a result roots develop in them easily and quickly which decrease lawn establishment time. Kafi et al.  did an investigation to find the best mulch compounds and cultivation time on hydro-mulching and its effect on some of qualitative and quantitative characteristics of lawn. Their findings showed that the lawn establishment in spring cultivation is faster than fall cultivation.
|Figure 12: Mean comparison of various beds on the time of sod establishment in the main field|
Click here to view
| Conclusion|| |
Our results showed that in the most of investigated variables, the soil combination of clay + spent mushroom compost (1:1) (v.v) and sand + spent mushroom compost (1:1) (v.v) showed a better quality in comparison to other treatments and spent mushroom compost can be used as a factor to improve soil physical and chemical characteristics which decrease production costs. Sodding needs lots of facilities, equipment, and field; thus, sod cultivation in cartonplast can facilitate working conditions and decrease costs by omitting some equipment like sod cutter.
Financial support and sponsorship
Conflict of interest
There are no conflicts of interest.
| References|| |
Stratton ML, Baker AV, Rechcigl JE. Compost. In: Rechcigl JE, editor. Soil Amendment Sand Environmental Quality. Boca Raton, FL: Lewis Publishing; 1995. p. 249-309.
Chodak M, Borken W, Ludwig B, Beese F. Effect of temperature on the mineralization of C and N of fresh and mature compost in sandy material. J Plant Nutr Soil Sci 2001;164:284-94.
Tejada M, Dobao MM, Benitez C, Gonzalez JL. Study of composting of cotton residues. Bioresour Technol 2001;79:199-202.
Suthar S. Impact of vermicompost and composted farmyard manure ongrowth and yield of garlic (Allium stivum
L.) Field crop. Int J Plant Prod 2009;3:27-38.
Hargreaves JC, Adl MS, Warman PR. A review of the use of composted municipal solid waste in agriculture. Agric Ecosyst Environ 2008;123:1-14.
Mohammadi Ghehsareh A, Samadi N, Borji H. Comparison of data-palm wastes and perlite as growth substrates on some tomato growing indexes. Afr J Biotechnol 2012;10:4871-8.
Zinati GM, Li Y, Bryan HH, Mylavarapu RS, Codallo M. Distribution and fractionation of phosphorus, cadmium, nickel, and lead in calcareous soils amended with composts. J Environ Sci Health B 2004;39:209-23.
LeaMaster B, Hollyer JR, Sullivan JL. Composted animal manures: Precautions and processing. Anim Waste Manage 1998;6:100-5.
Agassi A, Hadas A, Benyamini Y, Levy GJ, Kautsky L, Avrahamov L, et al
. Mulching effects of composted MSW on water percolation and compost degradation rate. Compost Sci Util 1998;6:34-41.
Movahedi Naeini SA, Cook HF. Influence of municipal waste compost amendment on soil water and evaporation. Commun Soil Sci Plant Anal 2000;31:3147-61.
Sinha RK, Dalsukh V, Krunal C, Sunita A. Embarking on a second green revolution for sustainable agriculture by vermiculture biotechnology using earthworms: Reviving the dreams of Sir Charles Darwin. J Agric Biotechnol Sustain Dev 2010;2:113-28.
Ghazimeanas M, Shafie SH, Hadi MH, Darzi M. The effecte of different amounts of vermi compost fertilizer and nitrogen on the qualitative and quantitative function of Matricaria chamomilla
Hu Y, Barker A. Effects of composts and their combinations with other materials on nutrient accumulation in tomato leaves. Commun Soil Sci Plant Anal 2004;35:2809-23.
Jordan SN, Mullen GJ, Courtney RG. Utilization of spent mushroom compost for the revegetation of lead-zinc tailings: Effects on physico-chemical properties of tailings and growth of Lolium perenne. Bioresour Technol 2008;99:8125-9.
Geisel P, Le strange M, Silva D. Topdressing compost on bermudagrass: In effect on turf quality and weeds. Cal Turfgrass Cult 2001;51:1-4.
Hussain I, Khan MA, Khan EA. Bread wheat varieties as influenced by different nitrogen levels. J Zhejiang Univ Sci B 2006;7:70-8.
Singh R, Agarwal SK. Growth and yield of wheat (Triticum aestivum
) as influenced by levels of farmyard manure and nitrogen. Indian J Agron 2001;46:462-7.
Maaswinkel R, Gunadi N. Improving sweet pepper yields in Indonesia. Fruit Vegetable Technol 2009;9:14-5.
Khattak AM, Ahmad I, UI Amin N, Vahid F, Urraham H. Effect of different amended organic media on the growth and development on Vinca rosea
victory. Sarhad J Agric 2011;27:201-5.
Bernal MP, Alburquerque JA, Moral R. Composting of animal manures and chemical criteria for compost maturity assessment. A review. Bioresour Technol 2009;100:5444-53.
Yasmeen SH, Younis A, Rayit A, Riaz A, Shabber S. Effect of different substrates on growh and flowing of Dianthus caryophyllus
cv. chauband mixed. American-Eurasian J Agric and Environ Sci 2012;12:249-58.
Law-Ogbomo KE, Ajayi SE. Growth and yield performance of amaranthus cruentus influenced by planting density and poulty manure application. J Notulae Botanicae Horti Agrobotanici Cluy Napoca 2009;37:195-9.
Chanda GK, Bhunia G, Chakraborty SK. The effect of vermicompost and other fertilizers on cultivation of tomato plants. J Hortic Forestry 2011;3:42-5.
Bachman GR, Metzger JD. Growth of bedding plants in commercial potting substrate amended with vermicompost. Bioresource technology 2008;99:3155-61.
Cisar JL, Snyder GH. Sod production on a solid-waste compost over plastic. HortScience 1992;27:219-22.
Rodriguez JR, Miller GL. Using cholorophyll meter to cholorophll concentration nitrogen con centration and visual quality of St. Augustine grass. HortScience 2000;35:751-4.
Kafi M, Haghighi M, Tehrani FA, Nezhad GH, Nemati H. Introducing the best mulching media and time of culture for hydromulching system and its effect on the quality and quantity aspect of lawn. J Sci Technol Agric Nat Res 2009;13:659-66.
[Figure 1], [Figure 2], [Figure 3], [Figure 4], [Figure 5], [Figure 6], [Figure 7], [Figure 8], [Figure 9], [Figure 10], [Figure 11], [Figure 12]
[Table 1], [Table 2], [Table 3], [Table 4]