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 Table of Contents  
ORIGINAL ARTICLE
Year : 2016  |  Volume : 2  |  Issue : 1  |  Page : 10-14

The Role of Different Hormones on Some Vegetative and Reproductive Traits of Carnation (Dianthus caryophyllus L.)


Department of Horticulture, Isfahan (Khorasgan) Branch, Islamic Azad University, Isfahan, Iran

Date of Web Publication4-May-2016

Correspondence Address:
Dr. Davood Naderi
Department of Horticulture, Isfahan (Khorasgan) Branch, Islamic Azad University, Isfahan
Iran
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Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None

DOI: 10.4103/2423-7752.181801

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  Abstract 

Aim: Carnation (Dianthus caryophyllus L.) is most famous for its use as a cut flower. This research was carried out in the research greenhouse of Islamic Azad University, Isfahan (Khorasgan) branch, to investigate the effect of different hormones on some vegetative and reproductive traits of carnation. Settings and Design: The experimental design was completely randomized design. Materials and Methods: Using different hormonal treatments included indole-3-buteric acid (IBA) (1,000 ppm, 2,000 ppm, 2,500 ppm, and 3,000 ppm), potassium salt of indole-3-butyric acid (KIBA) (1,000 ppm, 2,000 ppm, 2,500 ppm, and 3,000 ppm), and no treatment as control with three replications. Stem cuttings of carnation were supplied from "Pink Nelson." The cuttings were exposed to different hormones for 10 s, and they were grown in coco peat+perlite (50%+50%) media. Plant irrigation was done with fogger systems. Some characteristics of the plant, such as the number of flowers, flower diameter, number of internodes, number of buds, flower stem length, number of leaves, and weight of aerial parts and root, were determined. Results: Statistical analysis showed that the number of flowers and weight of root of the plants treated with IBA and KIBA hormones were far greater compared to that of the controls. The highest of flower number, flower diameter, fresh and dry weight of root was obtained from IBA 2,000 ppm. The number of buds was significantly increased by the application of IBA at 1000 ppm and 2,000 ppm. And, KIBA at 1,000 ppm can increase the stem length of the flowers. Conclusion: Based on these results, it is suggested that the application of IBA and KIBA hormones improved quality of carnation flowers.

Keywords: Carnation, cut flowers, cutting, hormones, indole-3-buteric acid, potassium salt of indole-3-butyric acid (KIBA)


How to cite this article:
Naderi D, Rohani S. The Role of Different Hormones on Some Vegetative and Reproductive Traits of Carnation (Dianthus caryophyllus L.). J Earth Environ Health Sci 2016;2:10-4

How to cite this URL:
Naderi D, Rohani S. The Role of Different Hormones on Some Vegetative and Reproductive Traits of Carnation (Dianthus caryophyllus L.). J Earth Environ Health Sci [serial online] 2016 [cited 2019 Jan 16];2:10-4. Available from: http://www.ijeehs.org/text.asp?2016/2/1/10/181801


  Introduction Top


The plant hormones are important regulators of plant growth. These compounds are structurally a collection of small molecules derived from different necessary metabolic pathways. [1] Auxins are plant growth regulators that are associated with plant growth. These induce both growth of preexisting roots and adventitious root formation. In horticulture, auxins, especially indole-3-buteric acid (IBA), are commonly applied to stimulate root initiation in cuttings of plants. [2] Auxins regulate many physiological processes that include cell division and elongation, apical dominance in shoot, root initiation, vascular tissue differentiation, fruit drop or retention, apical dominance, leaf senescence, leaf and fruit abscission, fruit setting and vegetative growth, fruit ripening, flowering, suppression of the growth of side buds, and stimulation of root growth. [3] The most biologically active and the most practical auxins are naphthalene acetic acid (NAA) and indole-3-butyric acid (IBA). [4] The finding of Starbuck [5] illustrated that the concentration range of IBA in which root initiation by plants can be stimulated without retarding shoot growth. KIBA (the potassium salt of IBA) is effective in stimulating the development of secondary root of plants. As demonstrated by Susaj et al. in two rose cultivars, the maximal survival percentage was obtained by using IBA at 500 ppm and the maximal number of roots and the longest roots were obtained by using IBA at 1,000 ppm. The strongest roots and healthier seedlings were observed by using IBA at 500 ppm. [6] Jabbarzadeh and Khosh- Khui found that a combination of 2.5-3 ppm KBA and 0.1 ppm IBA was most suitable for the proliferation of Damask rose. [7]

Carnation (Dianthus caryophyllus L.) has high ornamental value, and there is an easy technology for the production of carnation cut flower. It is the main floriculture crop in many countries. Carnation is most famous for its use as a cut flower. It is a wonderful accent to bouquets and home floral arrangements. The present study was conducted to evaluate the effect of different hormones on some vegetative and reproductive traits of carnation.


  Materials and Methods Top


This research was carried out in the research greenhouse of Islamic Azad University, Isfahan (Khorasgan) branch. The experiment was carried out to evaluate the effect of different hormones on some vegetative and reproductive traits of carnation (D. caryophyllus L.). The experimental design was completely randomized design using different hormonal treatments Included IBA (1,000 ppm, 2,000 ppm, 2,500 ppm, and 3,000 ppm), KIBA (1,000 ppm, 2,000 ppm, 2,500 ppm, and 3,000 ppm), and no treatment as control with three replications. The average temperatures of day and night were 25°C and 18°C, respectively, and the relative humidity in the greenhouse was 90% during the growth period. Stem cuttings of carnation were supplied from "Pink Nelson." These cuttings were exposed to different hormones for 10 s, and they were grown in coco peat+perlite (50% + 50%) media. Plant irrigation was done with fogger systems. Some properties of the plant, such as the number of flowers, flower diameter (6 weeks after cuttings transfer), number of internodes, number of buds (2 weeks after cuttings transfer), flower stem length (8 weeks after cuttings transport), number of leaves, and weight of plant (aerial parts and root) (2 weeks after cuttings transfer), were determined.

Statistical analyses

The statistical analyses of the effects of different hormones on the quantitative and qualitative traits of carnation cut flowers were carried out by one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA). Differences between the treatments were determined using Duncan test at P < 0.05. Statistical procedures were performed using the Statistical Analysis System (SAS), version 9.1 (SAS Institute, Cary, NC, USA).


  Results and Discussion Top


As shown in [Table 1] and [Table 2], ANOVA indicated that the effect of hormone treatment on the studied properties (except for number of internodes) was significant.
Table 1: Summary of the statistical analysis of the treatments


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Table 2: Summary of the statistical analysis of the treatments


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Number of flowers

The statistical analysis showed that the number of flowers was far greater in plants treated with IBA and KIBA hormones compared to control [Figure 1]. However, there were no significant differences between KIBA (at 2,000 ppm) and control treatments [Figure 1]. The highest of number of flowers was obtained by IBA treatment at 2,000 ppm [Figure 1]. However, it seems that the increase in the number of flowers may be because of IBA and KIBA role in flowering. [3]
Figure 1: The effects of growth regulators on the number of flowers. Means followed by the same letter are not significantly different at P < 0.05 by Duncan test

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Flower diameter

The results indicated that plants also responded to IBA and KIBA at 2000 ppm IBA by producing a highest of flower diameter than control [Figure 2]. Although IBA (at 1,000 ppm, 2,000 ppm, 2,500 ppm, and 3,000 ppm) and KIBA (at 1,000 ppm, 2,500 ppm, and 3,000 ppm) treatments caused an increase in the flower diameter, yet the differences were no significant [Figure 2]. The increase in flower diameter of carnation may be due to the role of IBA and KIBA in increasing cell division. Shahzad Akhtar et al. concluded that IBA was better than NAA in studied parameters of rose such as the number of roots, length of roots, and width of plant. [8]
Figure 2: The effects of growth regulators on flower diameter. Means followed by the same letter are not significantly different at P < 0.05 by Duncan test

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Number of internodes

There were no significant differences in the number of internodes between different treatments [Figure 3]. However, Cristean (2005) reported that the highest number of internodes per plantlet (for greenhouse carnations ) was registered after using treatments with NAA and AIA hormones. [9] Susaj et al. found that in two rose cultivars, at the same time, the use of rooting hormones has positively affected the sprout length. The longest sprouts were advanced by using IBA (500 ppm). [6]
Figure 3: The effects of growth regulators on number of internodes. Means followed by the same letter are not significantly different at P < 0.05 by Duncan test

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Number of buds

As shown in [Figure 4], the number of buds was significantly increased by the application of IBA (1,000 ppm and 2,000 ppm). Although the application of IBA at 2,500 ppm and 3,000 ppm caused an increase in the total number of flowers buds, the differences were not significant. However, the results indicated that the application of KIBA affected the number of flower buds, and these treatments caused a marginal (P > 0.05) decrease in the number of flower buds [Figure 4]. Cristean concluded that the IAA and GA 3 hormones promote the most powerful growth of plantlets and the weakest hormones were IBA and BAP. [9] Kabirnataj et al. reported that IBA was better than NAA on regeneration of adventitious shoots of Begonia rex. [10] However, Khan et al. found that maximum bud sprouting, bud spread and shoots length in rose were obtained in 50 ppm NAA. [11]
Figure 4: The effects of growth regulators on number of buds. Means followed by the same letter are not significantly different at P < 0.05 by Duncan test

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Flowers stem length

Results indicated that KIBA at 1,000 ppm caused an increase in stem length of the flowers. However, here were no significant differences between other hormones with control in flowers stem length [Figure 5]. However, Magley and Struve reported a positive effect of applying IBA on the shoot growth of root of pin oak. [12] Starbuck found that IBA that was most effective in stimulating root production was inhibitory to shoot growth. [5] Although KIBA advances root initiation, it did not restrain shoot growth unlike IBA. Susaj et al. indicated that, in two rose cultivars, the increase of NAA and IBA concentrations from 500 ppm up to 1,000 ppm make shoots shorter. They confirmed that the application of IBA at 500 ppm seems to be the most sustainable practices in terms of seedling production and nature preservation. [6]
Figure 5: The effects of growth regulators on flower stem length. Means followed by the same letter are not significantly different at P < 0.05 by Duncan test

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Number of leaves

As shown in [Figure 6], the number of leaves was increased by the application of IBA at 2,000 ppm and 2,500 ppm although these differences were not significant as found out by Duncan test at P < 0.05. However, the results showed that the application of KIBA affected number of leaves and these treatments caused a marginal (P > 0.05) decrease in number of leaves [Figure 6]. Khan et al. found that the number of leaves of rose plant increased with the increase in concentration of growth regulators. [11] Increase in leaf number carnation may be due to their important effect on inducing strong rooting system by hormones therefore enabling the plant to uptake more nutrients thereby producing more leaves. [13]
Figure 6: The effects of growth regulators on number of leaves. Means followed by the same letter are not significantly different at P < 0.05 by Duncan test

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Fresh and dry weight of aerial parts

The results indicated that fresh weight of aerial parts was significantly far greater in plants treated with IBA at 2,000 ppm and 3,000 ppm compared to controls [Figure 7]. However, dry weight of aerial parts was significantly far greater in plants treated with IBA at 2,000 ppm and KIBA at 3,000 ppm compared to control [Figure 8]. The reason for increments in fresh and dry weight of aerial parts can be the effects of auxins in cell division, root initiation, and vascular tissue differentiation, consequently more absorption of water and nutrients elements from the growth media. [3]
Figure 7: The effects of growth regulators on fresh weight of aerial parts. Means followed by the same letter are not significantly different at P < 0.05 by Duncan test

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Figure 8: The effects of growth regulators on dry weight of aerial parts. Means followed by the same letter are not significantly different at P < 0.05 by Duncan test

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Fresh and dry weight of root

As shown in [Figure 9], fresh weight of root was increased by the application of hormones (except for KIBA at 2,000 ppm and 2,500 ppm). The results indicated that fresh weight of root was significantly far greater in plants treated with IBA at 2,000 ppm compared to that of the plants treated with other treatments [Figure 9]. As shown in [Figure 10], dry weight of root was increased by the application of hormones. The results showed that dry weight of root was significantly far greater in plants treated with IBA at 2,000 ppm compared to that of the plants treated with other treatments [Figure 10]. The increase in fresh and dry weight of root of carnation may be due to the application of IBA and KIBA to increase root initiation and stimulate root growth. Roy et al. found that the number of roots and longest roots of rose explants was highest in 0.5 ppm NAA and 1 mg/L benzylaminopurine (BAP). [14] Susaj et al. found that the longest roots and the maximal number of roots for two rose cultivars were obtained by using IBA at 1,000 ppm, the strongest roots were developed by using IBA at 500 ppm. [6]
Figure 9: The effects of growth regulators on fresh weight of root. Means followed by the same letter are not significantly different at P < 0.05 by Duncan test

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Figure 10: The effects of growth regulators on dry weight of root. Means followed by the same letter are not significantly different at P < 0.05 by Duncan test

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  Conclusions Top


The performance and suitability of two plant hormones including IBA and KIBA for carnation (D. caryophyllus L.) cut flowers were studied in a greenhouse experiment. Based on the results of this study, it can be concluded that the application of IBA and KIBA improved the quantitative and qualitative traits of carnation cut flower.

Financial support and sponsorship

Nil.

Conflicts of interest

There are no conflicts of interest.

 
  References Top

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Santner A, Calderon-Villalobos LI, Estelle M. Plant hormones are versatile chemical regulators of plant growth. Nat Chem Biol 2009;5:301-7.  Back to cited text no. 1
    
2.
Fishel FM. Plant Growth Regulators. Available from: http://edis.ifas.ufl.edu. [Last accessed on 2015 Jul 22].  Back to cited text no. 2
    
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Alan T. Flowers. London, England; 2003. p. 85-97.  Back to cited text no. 3
    
4.
Belendez K. Propagating Roses by Rooted Cuttings. Available from: http://scvrs.homestead.com/Cuttings1.html. [Last accessed on 2015 Jul 22].  Back to cited text no. 4
    
5.
Starbuck CJ. Increasing production of new roots by potted roses with root applied IBA. J Environ Hortic 1987;5:125-7.  Back to cited text no. 5
    
6.
Susaj E, Susaj L, Kallço I. Effect of different NAA and IBA concentrations on rooting of vegetative cuttings of two rose cultivars. Res J Agric Sci 2012;44:121-7.  Back to cited text no. 6
    
7.
Jabbarzadeh Z, Khosh-Khui M. Factors affecting tissue culture of Damask rose (Rosa damascena Mill.). Sci Hortic 2005;105:475-82.  Back to cited text no. 7
    
8.
Akhtar MS, Khan MA, Riaz A, Younis A. Response of different rose species to different root promoting hormones. Pak J Agri Sci 2002;39:297-9.  Back to cited text no. 8
    
9.
Cristean D. Research into the influence of phytohormones upon the growth in vitro at several varieties of greenhouse carnation. Not Bot Hort Agrobot Cluj 2005;XXXIII: 33-7.  Back to cited text no. 9
    
10.
Sara K, Yousef G, Ghorbanali N, Roghayeh A, Behzad SK, Mohammad Y. Effect of explant type and growth regulators on in vitro micropropagation of Begonia rex. Int Res J Appl Basic Sci 2012;3:896-901.  Back to cited text no. 10
    
11.
Khan MS, Khan RU, Wassem K. Effect of some auxins on growth of damask rose cuttings in different growing media. J Agri Soc Sci 2006;2:13-6.  Back to cited text no. 11
    
12.
Magley SB, Struve DK. Effects of three transplant methods on survival, growth and root regeneration of caliper pin oaks. J Environ Hortic 1983;9:59-62.  Back to cited text no. 12
    
13.
Stancato GC, Aguiar FF, Kanashiro S, Tavares AR, Catharino EL, de Aguiar Silveira RB. Rhipsalis grandiflora Haw. (Cactaceae) propagation by stem cuttings. Sci Agric 2003;56:185-90.  Back to cited text no. 13
    
14.
Roy PK, Mamun ANK, Ahmed G. In vitro plantlets regeneration of rose. Plant Tissue Cult 2004;14:149-54.  Back to cited text no. 14
    


    Figures

  [Figure 1], [Figure 2], [Figure 3], [Figure 4], [Figure 5], [Figure 6], [Figure 7], [Figure 8], [Figure 9], [Figure 10]
 
 
    Tables

  [Table 1], [Table 2]



 

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