|Year : 2016 | Volume
| Issue : 1 | Page : 28-33
Investigating the Environmental Skill, Attitude, and Knowledge of Bojnourd Islamic Azad University Students
Mahboube Soleimanpour Omran1, Marzieh Ostadi Iraj2, Mohammad Hossein Yarmohammadian3
1 Ph.D, Department of Educational Management, Bojnourd Islamic Azad University, Iran
2 Master of Educational Management, Department of Educational Management, Bojnourd Islamic Azad University, Iran
3 Professor, Health Management and Economic Research Center, Isfahan University of Medical Sciences, Isfahan, Iran
|Date of Web Publication||4-May-2016|
Dr. Mahboube Soleimanpour Omran
Assistant Professor, Department of Educational Management, Bojnourd Islamic Azad University, Bojnourd
Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None
Introduction: The main causes of increased environmental crisis are miseducation and lack of environmental education. Objective: The purpose of this research is investigating environmental skill, attitude, and knowledge of Bojnourd Islamic Azad University students during the academic year 2013-2014. Materials and Methods: It research method is descriptive-survey. Number of studying students has been 5570; through Cochran formula estimated sample size has calculated to 359 who have been chosen by random-stratified method. Furthermore, it is noteworthy that to collect data measuring Environmental behavior standard questionnaire of Omran and Mohamadi (2008) has been used which its Cronbach alpha has been calculated 0.732; it indicate that the questionnaire has reliability. The validity of this questionnaire has been previously approved and implemented to analysis data SPSS 21 software has been used after collecting questionnaires. After investigating data normality through Kolmogorov-Smirnov and confirming used scale, hypotheses have been analyzed by one-sample t-test. Then relations statuses between dimensions and research variables according to respondents view have been analyzed. Results: Results have indicated that significance level of knowledge, attitude, and skill variables among Bojnord Islamic Azad University students is more than average and < 5%; with 95% confidence it can be claimed that all hypotheses have been approved (standard value). Conclusions: The environmental skill, attitude, and knowledge are desirable in Bojnourd Islamic Azad University students.
Keywords: Attitude and skill, environmental behaviors, knowledge, student
|How to cite this article:|
Omran MS, Iraj MO, Yarmohammadian MH. Investigating the Environmental Skill, Attitude, and Knowledge of Bojnourd Islamic Azad University Students. J Earth Environ Health Sci 2016;2:28-33
|How to cite this URL:|
Omran MS, Iraj MO, Yarmohammadian MH. Investigating the Environmental Skill, Attitude, and Knowledge of Bojnourd Islamic Azad University Students. J Earth Environ Health Sci [serial online] 2016 [cited 2019 May 19];2:28-33. Available from: http://www.ijeehs.org/text.asp?2016/2/1/28/181804
| Introduction|| |
Plants and animals are interacting with and affecting each other as live parts and components of environment.  Nowadays, increasing rate of environment destruction, together with emergence of sustainable development concept, has motivated educational organizations (formal or informal) to seek for proper and effective solutions to increase environmental efficiency.  As a result, there is more attention to environmental education; also profitability and emergence of training Environmental issues in all educational levels has been considered though conferences of world union to protect environment and its resources.  Furthermore, during two past decades, the issue of environmental education has been considered as an active process and the biggest region which has tried to be accepted as main part of educational process and during it awareness, knowledge, and skills have increased and resulted in understanding, commitment, informed decisions, and constructive activities to manage all integrated environmental components; the situation has enabled the students to criticize environmental issues through experience.  However, the main causes of increased environmental crisis are miseducation and lack of environmental education as well as ignoring education of accurate environmental attitude.  Now, the earth is facing with more environmental crisis.  Most of them result from the fast development of industry and population growth. Nowadays, related issues to people-environment relation and discussion on human activities in protecting, improving, or destructing environment are so comprehensive; results of most cases have indicated that changes in society behavior and attitude in relation to environment importance and value are an essential and inevitable issue for human survival.  Despite the formation of anti-pollution organizations and holding conferences, seminars and so on, governments only do their difficult duty for controlling pollution in the name of "regional fight." However, current duties of governments limited to advice for citizens are not efficient in regional level.  Therefore, despite overwhelming progress in human knowledge and technology, unfortunately, environment is still in a complicated and critical situation at regional, national, and international levels. Water, air, and soil pollution and uncontrolled growth of human activities on one hand, and degradation of natural resources, on the other hand, are not stopping because human considers himself as the owner of the earth and not as its resident and all of them result from environmental misbehavior with his environment.  Consumption level of live resources is faster than their renewal rate. Mine, oil, and underground water extraction have been done regardless of limitations and their needs to recycling. Due to this situation.  as well as population and per capita income increment, knowledge advancement, and raising living standards most of these resources are not plentiful.  Humankind is gradually changing to a civil species, and his effects on environment come increasingly from civil life effects. 
As a result, with a glance look to environment, it can be said that human activities are the most important and effective factors in environmental changes.  Researchers has presented various solutions for solving environmental issues which most of them are technological; but due to high costs of these plans they have been interested in changing people way of living and behavioral solutions  and have found that there is no possibility in success of environmental projects practically without providing public awareness; because knowledge and awareness are fundamentals of attitude and behavior for friendly interaction with environment and environment improvement requires participation of people who know environment importance in people life. Environment protection is a national attempt requiring participation of all people.  Hence, it is necessary to take extensive, immersive, continuous, and comprehensive actions to improve position of environment awareness and culture in people mind.  Ministry of education, especially academic community who has especial sensitivity among people can prepare the necessary knowledge, skill, and motivation for individual and collaborative actions.  According to that proper education will result in very positive effect on improvement of environmental culture and sustainable development. Convention of the United Nation as "human environment and development" held in Stockholm in 1972 has historically been the first collective attempts to talk about environmental problems.  Thereafter, this issue has been investigated by many theorists. For instance, Simons (1995), Volek and Mc Beth (1998) have presented that environmental literacy has three main and important components, i.e., knowledge, attitude, and behavior (skill).  Harun et al. (2011), have considered three parts, i.e. environmental views, environmental concerns and environmental attitudes for measuring environmental attitudes.  Perron et al. (2006), have considered three components; environmental knowledge, environmental intuition, and environmental policies to evaluate environmental awareness and have presented questions for each of them.  Moreover, Stren (1993) has stated that in addition to attitudinal factor, three other factors including (1) field factors such as financial costs, reward, and technology availability, (2) individual abilities, and (3) habits, affect positive environmental behaviors too.  A remarkable research conducted in this field is the study carried out by Soleimanpour Omran and Yarmohammadyan (2015) entitled as, Designing Environmental Literacy Curriculum for Secondary School Education System in Iran: Using an Integrated Approach, emphasizing that social learning theories can be taken into account as a solution for environmental education improvement. In their research as investigating environmental attitudes among children with different social categorizing.  Meybodi et al. (2014) stated that there may be conflict between environmental awareness and environmental understanding. In the other word, people with higher social position have lower environmental understanding and higher environmental awareness. Moreover, in their research as investigating relationship between environmental education and protecting environment behaviors.  Salehi and Ghaemi Asl (2013) have remarked that there is significant difference in averages environmental behavior in various educational levels, and environmental attitude has positive effect on occurrence of protecting environment behaviors.  Also, findings of Ogunbiyi and Ajiboye (2009) in their research as "attitude to before service knowledge to some concepts of environment education" have indicated positive effect of education in increasing the level of environmental knowledge and attitude.  However, our research is different from Hassan and Zayeb Ismail (2011) research as "investigating and determining relationship between environment education inductions" which have maintained that attitude and awareness are not related to environmental education.  In general, regarding the fact that Iran has been facing remarkable population growth crisis, urbanization increment, consumerism, and so on during 30 past years as a result of developmental plans, environmental crisis are threatening all nature system and global changes are resulted from environment destruction, resource scarcity, energy consumption increment, species extinction, desertification, and deforestation. As a result, since natural resources are important fundamentals of resulting sustainable development. Therefore, familiarity with crises which affect natural resources and environment is necessary.  Hence, according to abovementioned issues, it can be said that environment can be improved through increasing people awareness and knowledge. Regarding the fact that university students are dealing with educational environment and have significant influence on others, increase of public awareness and collective participation can be tried in this field. The main objective of this research is investigating biological skill, attitude, and knowledge of Bojnourd Islamic Azad University students during the academic year 2014-2015 which tries to answer these questions;
- Environmental knowledge of Bojnourd Islamic Azad University students is more than average
- Environmental attitude of Bojnourd Islamic Azad University students is more than average
- Environmental skill of Bojnourd Islamic Azad University students is more than average
- There is difference between environmental knowledge, attitude, and skill of male and female students.
- There is difference in environmental knowledge, attitude, and skill of students in terms of age
- There is difference in environmental knowledge, attitude, and skill of students in terms of education.
| Materials and Methods|| |
It is applicable in terms of aim, and its way of doing is descriptive-survey. Statistical population includes Bojnourd Islamic Azad University students (n = 5570) out of which a sample of 359 individuals was taken by random-stratified sampling method. To collect data measuring environmental behavior, standard questionnaire of Omran and Mohamadi (2009) has been used which its reliability and validity has been confirmed in many studies. The questionnaire measures three components including environmental knowledge, attitude, and skills and is composed of 9 descriptive questions, 11 and 18 items based on Likert scale, respectively. After measuring Cronbach's alpha which are 0.71, 0.732, and 0.763, respectively; data analysis was performed using descriptive statistical methods; frequency distribution tables, mean and standard deviation. Hypotheses were tested using variance and t-test and SPSS 21 software (IBM Company).
| Results and Discussion|| |
Investigating knowledge level
Results have indicated that 0.56% of students have had less knowledge about environment, 13.09% have had average knowledge and 86.4% have had high; therefore, the most frequency is for high knowledge item which among it 56.9% of students are male, and 43.17% are female. Results have shown rejection of null hypothesis (H0) and acceptance of alternative hypothesis (H0) [Table 1].
|Table 1: Distribution of people knowledge level according to demographic information |
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Investigating people attitude
Mean of respondent's view in environmental attitude dimension has been calculated to 3.447 which is more than average value of Likert. Significance level is 0.001 which is <0.05 value of error level; so, seen mean is significance. Also, T-statistics value has calculated to 13.823 which is more than 1.96 crisis value. Moreover, both upper and lower bounds of confidence interval have been more than zero (positive) and test claim has been accepted. Based on statistical findings with 0.95% confidence, we can say that dominate attitude is more than average [Table 2].
Investigating people skill
Mean of respondent's view in environmental skill dimension has been calculated to 3.819 which are more than average value of Likert. Significance level is 0.001 which is < 0.05 value of error level; so, seen mean is significance. Furthermore, T-statistics value has calculated to 32.462 which is more than 1.96 crisis value. And, both upper and lower bounds of confidence interval have been more than zero (positive) and test claim has been accepted. Based on statistical findings with 0.95% confidence, we can say that environmental skill is more than average [Table 3].
Investigating findings according to demographic variables
After that, it has been clarified findings of population mean test (one-sample t-test) about under study dimensions have been significant; then, the difference in respondent's views has been investigated in this part based on general features. Demographic features in this research are; gender, age, and education. Moreover, independent t-test and variance analysis have been used too.
Difference in respondent's views based on gender
Levin test result (variance equality hypothesis) indicates that there is no variance equality hypothesis; so, hypothesis test of variance un-equality has been done. Female attitudes mean (−0.073) is a bit more than male attitudes mean. Results have shown that significance level is more than error level; so, difference in views of female and male students are not significant, i.e., gender does not affect people attitude.
Difference in respondent's views based on skill
Difference in male and female views in relation to skill has been investigated in 0.05% significance level. There is no variance equality hypothesis; so, hypothesis test of variance un-equality has been done. Mean of male skill (0.0008) is more than mean of female skill. Results have shown that significance level is 0.881 and more than error level; therefore, difference in male and female views is not significant, i.e. gender does not affect skill [Table 4].
|Table 4: Results of independent t-test for people skill based on gender |
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Difference in respondent's views based on age
Difference in people age statues in relation to research variables has been investigated in 0.05% significance level. Significance level in the field of knowledge and skill has been more than error level; so, there is no reason to reject null hypothesis. Therefore, people age differences do not affect their knowledge and skill. On the other hand, significance level of attitude is 0.041 and less than error level. Hence, age differences affect their attitudes. Results of least significant difference (LSD) test have shown that in "individual factors" dimension there are significant view differences between upper bound people (>50) and lower bound people (<30) and both of them have view difference with others. Mean values show that how more is age, importance of people attitude score mean is more than. However, it should be told that there are not significant view differences between views of people > 50 and people 40-50 years [Table 5].
Difference in respondent's views based on education
Significance level of difference in respondents' views based on education in the field of attitude and skill is very little value (0.001) and < 0.05 error; therefore, people with different education have different views in the field of attitude and skill. In 95% confidence, we can claim that these factors are affected by education. Results of LSD have been indicated that in attitude and skill dimension, all mean pairs have had significant difference. According to observed mean, how more is education, importance level of these dimensions from respondents' view is more than [Table 6].
| Conclusions|| |
Nowadays, preparing environmental policies as well as participation and knowledge on environmental issues is very important.  Because economic and political crises and issues such as limitation of fossil fuels, environmental concerns, increasing growth of population, economic growth, consumption level, etc.  Have resulted in irreparable consequences. So that, even 40 years after constitution of the first movement related to environment and existence of extensive supports to increase people awareness about human behavior consequences, human skills change hardly. In the other words, regarding the fact that the main cause of most environmental problems are human activities and actions; it is necessary to initiate substantial changes in human activities.  Furthermore, people knowledge on ways of protecting environment is one of the most important environment destructive preventing techniques.  Also, UNESCO (1987) has defined environment education as a growing trend in the world which concerns about environment situation and tries to solve its problems as well as using knowledge, skill, attitudes, motivation, and commitment are ways for solving current problems and preventing other ones.  However, different information instruments can have play an important role in creating people environmental awareness and knowledge.  However, education system especially universities can be more effective than other organizations according to its main role in public awareness. As a result, we can act more effectively to change general culture through having educational long- and short-term objectives. In this research, after investigating environmental knowledge, attitude, and skills of Bojnourd Islamic Azad students in relation to results of three first hypotheses; environmental knowledge, attitude, and skill levels of Bojnourd Islamic Azad students is more than average, it can be claimed that mean value of students' environmental knowledge, attitude is more than average; indicating that students have higher information about environmental knowledge, attitude. Moreover, according to results, it can be said that increment in environmental knowledge, attitude among people result in their skill in relation to the issue. In addition, regarding the forth hypothesis; there is difference between knowledge, attitude, and skill of male and female students. According to results, it can be claimed that there is no difference in the environmental knowledge level of male and female students. Female mean value in relation to attitude is a bit more than that of males; but it does not have any effect in the results. Totally, results indicate that gender does not have any significant effect on environmental attitudes component. In addition, considering male and female difference in relation to environmental skill, it can be claimed that male skill is a bit more than that of females; but it is not high enough to infer that there is difference between male and female in relation to environmental skill; so, there is no significant difference between male and female students considering environmental knowledge, attitude, and skill levels. Regarding the fifth hypothesis claiming that "there is significant difference between male and female students based on environmental knowledge, attitude, and skill levels," it is observed that difference in people ages does not affect environmental knowledge and skill; but in relation to attitude it can be claim that difference in people ages affects their attitude. Also, according to observed mean in relation to the fifth hypothesis, results indicate that how more is education, these dimensions importance from respondents view will be more; this indicates that the hypothesis has been accepted. The results obtained in this research are in agreement with those reported by Kose et al. (2011). They have found that sensitivity to environment and environmental awareness is different based on gender and people who have environmental knowledge and sensitivity, can deal with environmental issues well.  Moreover, the result of the present study accord with the findings of Akomolafe research showing that that gender does not have any effect on students' environmental knowledge; however, the present study does not have significant relation with Tesksoz et al. research which has presented that there is no significant difference in students' environmental knowledge, attitude, and behavior.  Also, it has significant relationship with Riazi (2015) research which has presented that general awareness and environmental conscience must be generalized among people; this will not be resulted through once or twice presenting and direct and indirect education must be presented continuously in this field.  Results also has a significant relationship with Maravic et al. (2014) research which has confirmed on great concerns to environmental issues and introducing environmental education in all level of education system.  However, it is in contrast to the research conducted by Osman et al. (2014) who has presented that environmental knowledge has great effect on environmental behavior; but, environmental attitude has no positive effect on it.  And, it has relation with Mokhtari Malek Abadi et al. (2012) researches which have presented that women have more environmental concerns and worries to men. Finally, based on the results, it can be suggested that according to available capacities in the society and environmental responsible behaviors, protection from natural resources and environment among students be fostered according to importance of them in the society. And, this will not occur without changes in people attitude and recognition to environment. Environment education is a main issue. If target group (students) is recognized and national, international, and regional priorities are understood well, great changes in people environmental behaviors and attitudes can be observed. Moreover, as Uzun and Keles has confirmed the activities and techniques in which active learning methods have been used, in this research, we confirm on students' active learning to increase environmental knowledge, attitude, and skill. Finally, based on hypotheses 1, 2, and 3, it is recommended that the capacity of university students be considered to achieve environmental behaviors for protection of environment and natural resources. Since this is not achieved without changes in human cognitions and attitudes about environment, and environmental education is a critical issue so if target groups (students) are truly identified, scientific skills are increased, improved, and environment friendly sciences and technologies are extended among the students through accurate explanation of environmental education goals through different approaches such as holding scientific congress, and national, regional and global priorities are truly assessed, fundamental changes occur in human attitudes and behavior. In accordance with the research conducted by Uzun and Keles who emphasized active learning activities, the present study accentuates active learning of students and other social strata for elevation of environmental knowledge, attitudes, and functions. Regarding hypotheses 4, 5, and 6, although the effects of some mediating factors on students' knowledge, attitudes, and skill were not tangible, based on psychological difference among the students concerning gender, education and age, these factors are recommended to be included in the programs designed to enhance efficiency and effectiveness of educational plans. Regarding limitations, it can be expressed that due to high research cost and unavailability of enough facilities, the research was not carried out in a larger population and hence, the sample was limited to Bojnourd Islamic Azad University. Moreover, due to time constraints, only closed questionnaire was used in this study, and other methods such as observation and interviewing were not included in the research; suggesting an urgent need for addressing the limitations obstructing the way toward environmental goals.
Financial support and sponsorship
Conflicts of interest
There are no conflicts of interest.
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[Table 1], [Table 2], [Table 3], [Table 4], [Table 5], [Table 6]