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   2015| January-June  | Volume 1 | Issue 1  
    Online since July 3, 2015

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Study of Prevalence of Microbial Contamination with its Antibiotic Resistance Pattern in Automated Teller Machine in and around Puducherry, India
J Nagajothi, D Jeyakumari, S Vigneshwaran, R Praveen Kumar, RS Bharatwaj, R Bagyalakshmi
January-June 2015, 1(1):27-31
Objective: To determine the prevalence of microbial contamination in automated teller machine (ATM) centers and report on its antibiotic susceptibility pattern. Materials and Methods: Ninety-two samples were collected from different ATM centers in and around Puducherry, India during summer (n = 50) and winter (n = 42). Sterile swabs soaked in sterile saline were used to swab the door handles, ATM monitors, keyboards, card swiping machines, and money outlets. The swabs were transported to the laboratory within 30 min from the time of collection and processed according to standard microbiological methods. Results: Of the 92 swabs collected from ATM centers, microbial growth was observed in 88 (95.7%) swabs. One hundred and sixty micro-organisms comprising 157 bacteria and 3 fungi were isolated. Klebsiella species (42.5%) was the predominant isolate followed by coagulase-negative Staphylococcus (CoNS) 20.62% and Pseudomonas aeruginosa (15%), Escherichia coli (10.6%), Staphylococcus aureus (3.75%). All the isolates of Klebsiella, P. aeruginosa, and E. coli were susceptible to amikacin, imipenem, ceftazidime-clavulanic acid, and piperacillin-tazobactam. Variable susceptibility patterns were obtained with amoxyclav, ceftazidime, ciprofloxacin, gentamycin. In the summer study, 82% Klebsiella species were extended-spectrum beta-lactamase (ESBL) producers and 40% S. aureus were resistant to methicillin. CoNS exhibited sensitivity to amoxyclav, penicillin, ceftazidime, erythromycin, linezolid, vancomycin. Conclusion: The study revealed heavy bacterial contamination of ATM centers. Significantly ESBL producing Klebsiella species and Methicillin resistant S. aureus were colonizing the ATM machines. This finding necessitates the need for frequent disinfection of ATM machines and its accessories along with periodical microbiological surveillance.
  4,870 441 -
Improving the Medical Record Documentation by Quantitative Analysis in a Training Hospital
Sedighe Torki, Nahid Tavakoli, Elahe Khorasani
January-June 2015, 1(1):22-26
Introduction: Completed medical records have an important role in hospital evaluation and one thing that usually reduces evaluation score of medical records department and hospital clinical wards is such defects. Therefore, regarding the importance of this matter, this study was done to study recording status of medical records by physicians in a training hospital. Methods: This study was an analytic-descriptive and cross sectional one. The population was inpatients medical record in 2012 and the number of samples was 389 medical records which were chosen by stratified sampling. Finally, after collecting data, they were analyzed by SPSS 13 software both descriptive and inferential statistics and presented in statistical tables. Results: Findings showed that the highest percent is allocated to the presence of progress notes and the lowest percent to recording time of physician first visit. Progress notes was the most incomplete item in wards of NICU, cardiovascular, psychiatric for men, surgery for women, intensive care, emergency, children and psychiatric for women. In wards of CCUII, internal for women, newborns C, and internal for men, lack of physician stamp on summary sheet was the most incomplete item. Conclusions: Progress notes, medical history sheet, and summary sheet were more completed after doing quantitative analysis and using defect eliminating checklist than medical records before November. By attaching defect eliminating form on medical records, we force physicians to complete incomplete records and they understand that completion of these forms will be controlled and these forms have to be completed otherwise records will be referred to them again for completion.
  4,477 403 -
The Functional Effect of Different Organic Matter on Spinach (Spinacia oleracea)
Faramarz Ahmadi, Mehrdad Jafarpour
January-June 2015, 1(1):1-4
Aims: The objectives of this study were to analyze two different organic materials of compost and vermicompost and examine their effects on growth characteristics of spinach plant. Settings and Design: The experiment was performed to evaluate the organic fertilizers effect on spinach (Spinacia oleracea) properties. Materials and Methods: This included 16 treatments in 4 replications which were laid out in a randomized complete block design. Treatments included compost, horse vermicompost and a compound of sawdust, crushed and noncrushed pomegranate peel and horse manure vermicompost of 8 and 12%. Statistical Analysis Used: After data collection, the MSTAT-C software was used to sort the data. Data was subject to analysis of variance (ANOVA) with SAS software and where significant means where detected, mean separation test was performed using the Duncan's test at the 1% probability level. Results: The results showed that all treatments significantly affected the variables. The treatment including horse manure vermicompost + sawdust + crushed and noncrushed pomegranate peel 8% caused the highest portion of Vitamin C in the plant. The highest amount of organic acid was observed in the crushed pomegranate peel and sawdust 12% vermicompost treatment. The most positive effect on total soluble solid was observed in treatments (horse manure vermicompost, sawdust and noncrushed pomegranate peel 8%) and (horse manure vermicompost, sawdust and crushed and noncrushed pomegranate peel 12%). Conclusions: Treatment (horse manure vermicompost, 8%) resulted in the most length in spinach leaves. It was therefore concluded that the effect of vermicompost treatment was more significant than the compost treatment on the growth of spinach.
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Modeling Land Use/Cover Changes by the Combination of Markov Chain and Cellular Automata Markov (CA-Markov) Models
Mozhgan Ahmadi Nadoushan, Alireza Soffianian, Alireza Alebrahim
January-June 2015, 1(1):16-21
Land use/cover changes modeling is essential for land use planning and management. Arak is one of several cities in Iran which have undergone swift urban expansion during recent decades due to rapid industrialization and population growth. In this study, aerial photos and Landsat TM and IRS-P6 LISS-III images were used to predict land use/cover changes in Arak. Land use/cover maps were generated with four classes from visual interpretation of aerial photos and an artificial neural network classification method for satellite images. Both classification methods resulted in land use/cover maps with overall accuracy over 95 %. In order to predict changes, Markov chain and Cellular Automata Markov models were applied and a land use/cover map for 2025 was simulated. The results showed that the combination of satellite remote sensing, GIS and Markov models provides useful information on land use/cover dynamics in future which could be consequently used for land use planning.
  2,065 336 -
The Effect of Different Bed Compositions on Sod Characteristics in Production and Establishment Stages
Fatemeh Ahmadian Vala, Davood Naderi, Masoud Ghasemi Ghahsareh
January-June 2015, 1(1):32-37
Nowadays, many investigations are done on plants waste that can be used as bio soil amendments. The use of biological fertilizers instead of chemical ones has been considered widely because of environmental issues importance. Cultivation beds have some influence on both stability and quality of sod. The current study was done to assess the impact of 5 soil compounds on two steps of bermudagrass sod production (cultivation in cartonplast and establishment) as a completely randomized design with three replicates. The soil compounds were clay, sand and spent mushroom compost in different compositions. Our results showed that at the time of lawn cultivation in cartonplast, the highest clipping fresh and dry weight and the best plant density were related to clay + spent mushroom compost (1:1) (v.v). We also found that the best color quality was related to clay + spent mushroom compost (1:1) (v.v), sand + spent mushroom compost (1:1) (v.v), clay + sand + spent mushroom compost (1:1:1) (v.v.v) bed while the lowest height of shoots was related to clay + sand (1:1) (v.v). In the second phase of the experiments, the highest clipping fresh and dry weight was related to clay + spent mushroom compost (1:1) (v.v), sand + spent mushroom compost (1:1) (v.v) bed. The highest shoots height was related to those beds too. The lowest establishment time was related to sand + spent mushroom compost (1:1) (v.v) bed. Finally, our results showed that spent mushroom compost can be used as a useful organic fertilizer which improves soil physical and chemical characteristics.
  1,731 415 -
Evaluation of Mineral Content in some Native Iranian Fenugreek (Trigonella foenum-graceum L.) Genotypes
Hossein Ali Asadi Gharneh, Saeid Davodalhosseini
January-June 2015, 1(1):38-41
Fenugreek (Trigonella foenum-graecum L.) is an annual herb is used as potherbs and spice or as herbal medicine. It is grown widely all over Iran, and its young leaves are used as fresh green as well as sun-dried for later use. In this study, seven fenugreek genotypes were planted according to randomized complete block design with three replicates. Several traits including ash, moisture content and some mineral content (P, K, Ca, Mg, Na, Fe, Mn, Zn and Cu) were measured. Results showed relatively considerable differences among studied genotypes. The levels of the Ca were ranged from 200.66 to 455.25 mg/100 g of fresh weight (gfw) while the levels of the P were ranged from 182 to 250 mg/100 gfw. The Gaz genotype had the highest content of Na and Fe while the highest content of Mg and Mn were observed in genotype Kashan (370.1 and 0.87 mg/100 gfw, respectively). The observed Ca/P ratio of Iranian fenugreek genotypes which is ranged from 0.80 to 2.0 is relatively an ideal content from a nutritional aspect. The highest Zn and Cu contents were identified in genotype Ardestan (4.1 and 2.5 mg/100 gfw, respectively). The observed difference in the nutrient composition of fenugreek genotypes corresponded to the relatively high genetic diversity found within the genotypes, which are useful for selecting specific genotypes for special purposes in breeding programs. Furthermore, some of the above genotypes could be used directly as commercial cultivars for fenugreek producers.
  1,918 200 -
An Exploration into the Effects of Organic and Chemical Compounds on Spinach (Spinacia oleraceae) Growth Attributes
Mehrdad Jafarpour Jafarpour, Shadi Rahimzadeh
January-June 2015, 1(1):11-15
Spinach is one of the important vegetables of Chenopodiacea family. It is from Center Aisa and the most likely Iran and it is considerable for high nutritional value. The present study investigated the influences exerted by such organic fertilizers as mushroom compost, mushroom vermicompost, sheep manure compost, sheep manure vermicompost, cow compost, cow manure vermicompost, municipal compost, chemical compost, and fertilizer-free soil upon spinach growth attributes at 8% and 12% levels. The results revealed the highest length of the plant in 12% mushroom compost and vermicompost and the heaviest fresh weight in cow and 12% mushroom vermicompost. In addition, solid soluble substances and the maximum amount of chlorophyll were reported to be attributed to 12% mushroom compost and mushroom vermicompost and compost at the 8% level, respectively. Therefore, the use of compost and vermicompost organic compounds, that had the high amount of nutrients, is suggested as a good organic manure in agriculture; it causes to increase yields, keep the soil organic matter, amend soil, and provide elements to plants.
  1,446 133 -
Healthcare Utilization Pattern of Patients with Diabetes in the Selected Medical Centers of the City of Isfahan, Iran
Mansoure Majlesi, Manal Etemadi, Elahe Khorasani
January-June 2015, 1(1):5-10
Introduction: Diabetes is the fourth leading cause of death in societies. Diabetes is not only considered just a disease but also is an interwoven network of environmental and genetic risk factors with different pathophysiology which is very costly. The aim of the present study is to investigate the utilization pattern of patients with diabetes in the centers of the City of Isfahan. Materials and Methods: The present study is a cross-sectional study which employs a descriptive method. In this study, the medical records of patients with diabetes referring to five diabetic care centers (a private center, a state-run center, a charity services center, a sub-specialized eye care center, and a subspecialized center for diabetic foot treatment) in the first half of 2013 were investigated. The data analysis was conducted using Microsoft Excel. Results: Most of the admitted patients were referred ones and the least of them were introduced by other centers. In the second level, visits to specialists and visits to ophthalmologists had the highest frequency. In the charity center, visits to internists had the highest frequency. In the state center, visits to ophthalmologists had the highest frequency. Conclusion: Regarding the favorability of the degree of diabetic patients' access to services in the City of Isfahan, policy making for public screening for identifying latent cases of diabetes and including patients in treatment cyclesin order for preventing the incidence of side effects and diabetes in the members of patients' families seem necessary.
  1,359 142 -