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Forest Fire Risk Zone Mapping Using RS and GIS Techniques: A Study in Achankovil Forest Division, Kerala, India
Rajendran Sobha Ajin, Ana-Maria Loghin, Padmakumari Gopinathan Vinod, Mathew Karumamkott Jacob
July-September 2016, 2(3):109-115
Introduction: Forest fires are one of the major natural hazards that affect the forest ecosystem, damaging the biodiversity, environment, and wildlife. The study area, Achankovil forest division, a part of the Western Ghats, is also prone to forest fire, wherein a total of 15 fires were reported for the past 11 years. Objective: The aim of this study is to demarcate the fire risk zones in Achankovil forest division. Materials and Methods: A method that integrated remote sensing (RS) and geographic information system (GIS) techniques was used to generate the fire risk zone map of the study area. In this mapping process, factors such as land cover type, slope, distance from settlement, distance from road, and elevation were taken into account. The risk zone map of the area of this study was created using the Fire Risk Index (FRI) method. Results: The final map comprised five fire risk zones, viz., very low, low, moderate, high, and very high. The high- and very high-risk zones together constituted 55.75% of the study area. The result of this study was validated with the fire incidence data and showed appreciable reliability. Conclusion: This study, based on geospatial technology, will help the authorities of the forest protection and conservation department to easily identify the fire risk zones for prevention and management of forest fires in the future.
  9,359 1,035 7
Investigation of Gastrointestinal Parasites of Gazella (Gazella subgutturosa) in Ghamishloo National Park and Wildlife Refuge
Mohammad M Baghi, Atefeh Chamani, Fatemeh Khajeh
July-September 2016, 2(3):85-88
Context: The Ghamishloo National Park and Wildlife Refuge, located in the west part of Isfahan province, is one of the most important protected areas in the country. This area, as one of the semi-desert ecosystems in the central part of Iran, is the habitat of numerous wildlife species (especially Gazella subgutturosa, Ovis orientalis and so on). Aims: Since the Persian Gazella (G. subgutturosa) is one of the most important protected wildlife species in Iran, parasitic diseases (along with other problems) cause significant decrease in the population of this animal and finally lead to extinction. Materials and Methods: From early May to the late August 2016, seventy fresh dung samples of G. subgutturosa and 10 livestock dung samples were collected and were immediately transported to the laboratory. Then the Clayton Lane method was used to investigate the parasite eggs, and the Berman method was applied to prepare and identify the parasite species. Results: The results showed that five samples had parasite. These samples were cultured to identify the parasite type. According to the results, 7.15% (2.86% Trishuris, 2.86% Moniezia and 1.43% Marshalagia parasites) of the samples were contaminated with the intestinal parasite eggs. Thereafter, some strategies were presented for controlling and monitoring the parasite pollutions in the region.
  5,488 3,999 -
The Strategy of Implementing Criminal Policy in Environmental Crimes
Noshin Dorri, Masoud Heidari
July-September 2016, 2(3):89-96
Introduction: The implementation of criminal policy for prevention of environmental crimes was examined in this study. Prevention is always better than cure, which is an important concept applicable to all aspects, as in this case, because most of the damages inflicted on the environment have a low probability of being restored. In addition to state agencies, non-governmental organizations (NGOs) also try to protect the environment. Some of the existing laws address environmental crimes. Environmental crimes are defined as crimes that cause severe destruction and damage to the environment and are a serious threat to the human health. Objectives: The objective of this study was to evaluate the implementation of the criminal policy for environmental crimes, because compensation and return to the previous status in these crimes is very difficult and perhaps impossible. Results: The result here indicates that with respect to the criminal policy of the law, thereof, our country lacks a comprehensive policy regarding environmental crimes, and the existing laws have some restrictions and defects. Swift and decisive acts against the criminals who misuse and damage the environment could have a preventive role. In spite of numerous laws and regulations in the environmental context in our country, appropriate support in this realm does not exist. Conclusions: Considering the fact that the environmental issues need to become a trained cultural aspect among all social statuses and strata, NGOs play an active role to achieve this goal.
  6,476 1,921 -
The Functional Effect of Different Organic Matter on Spinach (Spinacia oleracea)
Faramarz Ahmadi, Mehrdad Jafarpour
January-June 2015, 1(1):1-4
Aims: The objectives of this study were to analyze two different organic materials of compost and vermicompost and examine their effects on growth characteristics of spinach plant. Settings and Design: The experiment was performed to evaluate the organic fertilizers effect on spinach (Spinacia oleracea) properties. Materials and Methods: This included 16 treatments in 4 replications which were laid out in a randomized complete block design. Treatments included compost, horse vermicompost and a compound of sawdust, crushed and noncrushed pomegranate peel and horse manure vermicompost of 8 and 12%. Statistical Analysis Used: After data collection, the MSTAT-C software was used to sort the data. Data was subject to analysis of variance (ANOVA) with SAS software and where significant means where detected, mean separation test was performed using the Duncan's test at the 1% probability level. Results: The results showed that all treatments significantly affected the variables. The treatment including horse manure vermicompost + sawdust + crushed and noncrushed pomegranate peel 8% caused the highest portion of Vitamin C in the plant. The highest amount of organic acid was observed in the crushed pomegranate peel and sawdust 12% vermicompost treatment. The most positive effect on total soluble solid was observed in treatments (horse manure vermicompost, sawdust and noncrushed pomegranate peel 8%) and (horse manure vermicompost, sawdust and crushed and noncrushed pomegranate peel 12%). Conclusions: Treatment (horse manure vermicompost, 8%) resulted in the most length in spinach leaves. It was therefore concluded that the effect of vermicompost treatment was more significant than the compost treatment on the growth of spinach.
  7,572 599 -
Study of Prevalence of Microbial Contamination with its Antibiotic Resistance Pattern in Automated Teller Machine in and around Puducherry, India
J Nagajothi, D Jeyakumari, S Vigneshwaran, R Praveen Kumar, RS Bharatwaj, R Bagyalakshmi
January-June 2015, 1(1):27-31
Objective: To determine the prevalence of microbial contamination in automated teller machine (ATM) centers and report on its antibiotic susceptibility pattern. Materials and Methods: Ninety-two samples were collected from different ATM centers in and around Puducherry, India during summer (n = 50) and winter (n = 42). Sterile swabs soaked in sterile saline were used to swab the door handles, ATM monitors, keyboards, card swiping machines, and money outlets. The swabs were transported to the laboratory within 30 min from the time of collection and processed according to standard microbiological methods. Results: Of the 92 swabs collected from ATM centers, microbial growth was observed in 88 (95.7%) swabs. One hundred and sixty micro-organisms comprising 157 bacteria and 3 fungi were isolated. Klebsiella species (42.5%) was the predominant isolate followed by coagulase-negative Staphylococcus (CoNS) 20.62% and Pseudomonas aeruginosa (15%), Escherichia coli (10.6%), Staphylococcus aureus (3.75%). All the isolates of Klebsiella, P. aeruginosa, and E. coli were susceptible to amikacin, imipenem, ceftazidime-clavulanic acid, and piperacillin-tazobactam. Variable susceptibility patterns were obtained with amoxyclav, ceftazidime, ciprofloxacin, gentamycin. In the summer study, 82% Klebsiella species were extended-spectrum beta-lactamase (ESBL) producers and 40% S. aureus were resistant to methicillin. CoNS exhibited sensitivity to amoxyclav, penicillin, ceftazidime, erythromycin, linezolid, vancomycin. Conclusion: The study revealed heavy bacterial contamination of ATM centers. Significantly ESBL producing Klebsiella species and Methicillin resistant S. aureus were colonizing the ATM machines. This finding necessitates the need for frequent disinfection of ATM machines and its accessories along with periodical microbiological surveillance.
  7,377 675 -
Improving the Medical Record Documentation by Quantitative Analysis in a Training Hospital
Sedighe Torki, Nahid Tavakoli, Elahe Khorasani
January-June 2015, 1(1):22-26
Introduction: Completed medical records have an important role in hospital evaluation and one thing that usually reduces evaluation score of medical records department and hospital clinical wards is such defects. Therefore, regarding the importance of this matter, this study was done to study recording status of medical records by physicians in a training hospital. Methods: This study was an analytic-descriptive and cross sectional one. The population was inpatients medical record in 2012 and the number of samples was 389 medical records which were chosen by stratified sampling. Finally, after collecting data, they were analyzed by SPSS 13 software both descriptive and inferential statistics and presented in statistical tables. Results: Findings showed that the highest percent is allocated to the presence of progress notes and the lowest percent to recording time of physician first visit. Progress notes was the most incomplete item in wards of NICU, cardiovascular, psychiatric for men, surgery for women, intensive care, emergency, children and psychiatric for women. In wards of CCUII, internal for women, newborns C, and internal for men, lack of physician stamp on summary sheet was the most incomplete item. Conclusions: Progress notes, medical history sheet, and summary sheet were more completed after doing quantitative analysis and using defect eliminating checklist than medical records before November. By attaching defect eliminating form on medical records, we force physicians to complete incomplete records and they understand that completion of these forms will be controlled and these forms have to be completed otherwise records will be referred to them again for completion.
  7,303 631 -
Improving Biogas Production Performance From Pomegranate Waste, Poultry Manure and Cow Dung Sludge Using Thermophilic Anaerobic Digestion: Effect of Total Solids Adjustment
Vajiheh Ghasemi Ardaji, Hadi Radnezhad, Mohsen Nourouzi
July-September 2016, 2(3):97-102
Context: Biogas is one of the most important sources of renewable energy and is considered as an environmental friendly energy source. One of the most important parameter influencing the production of biogas is total solids (TS). Aims: In this study, the effects of different total amount of solids, which consisted of 5, 10, 15, 20, 25, and 30% treatments, on the biogas production were examined. The solids were obtained at a thermophilic temperature (55°C) from a mixture of pomegranate rind, cow manure, and sludge in 15 days using one-liter glass bottles. Materials and Methods: The influences of TS, volatile solids (VS), pH, and carbon-to-nitrogen ratio on the biogas production volume from optimized TS treatment were also evaluated. In addition, pomegranate peel was pretreated for lignocellulosic destruction. Results: The results showed that the biogas production increased from 0.273 to 0.736 L/day with an increase in TS from 5 to 25%. The 25% treatment had the highest mean biogas production (i.e., 0.736 L/day). Significant difference was observed between the 25% treatment and all other treatments except the 20% treatment. The regression model showed that the VS was the only parameter that had a significant effect on biogas production. This parameter justified about 74.1% of the biogas production accuracy. Conclusion: Anaerobic digestion is an appropriate technology to achieve the organic fraction of solid wastes. Due to higher biogas production, dry anaerobic digestion is of more importance than wet and semi-dry anaerobic digestion.
  6,316 947 1
Evaluation of Sustainable Development Indicators (Social and Environmental): A Case Study - Parand Industrial Town
Fatemeh Razavian, Mehrnoosh Jafari
July-December 2015, 1(2):43-46
Introduction: Currently, cities are responsible to provide rapidly growing population with housing, job, and services. In practice, sustainable development approach can be considered in the utilization of natural resources (renewable and nonrenewable), efficient and optimal utilization of resources, less environmental pollution, and sustainable society. Objective: The purpose of this study is to determine the factors effective on indicators of sustainable development and evaluate sustainable development in Parand Industrial Town. Materials and Methods: This study used an applied descriptive survey. Participants of this study included residents of Parand Town. Sample size (384) was calculated by Krejcie and Morgan Table using simple random sampling method. The collected data were analyzed by descriptive and analytic statistics including mean, median, and t-test. Results: Findings showed that sustainable development indicators (social and environmental) were evaluated average and above in Parand Industrial Town. Conclusions: Urban management is recommended to consider the above indicators to promote the development in Parand Town.
  2,631 4,032 -
Application of Palm Kernel Shell Activated Carbon for the Removal of Pollutant and Color in Palm Oil Mill Effluent Treatment
Nor Faizah Jalani, Astimar Abdul Aziz, Noorshamsiana Abdul Wahab, Wan Hasamudin Wan Hassan, Nahrul Hayawin Zainal
January-March 2016, 2(1):15-20
Introduction: Application of palm kernel shell activated carbon (PKSAC) in reducing the pollutant in palm oil mill effluent (POME) was studied as the alternative treatment system. Aim: The objective of this study was to determine the optimum PKSAC dosage and treatment time for its capability to treat the effluent. Methods: The study was carried out in batch and continuous systems. For batch system, activated carbon dosage ranging from 1% to 15% (w/v) was added into 200 mL of POME and agitated at 160 rpm for 24-120 h treatment time. As for continuous system, POME samples were fed into 2000 mL fixed-bed glass column and run continuously for 8 h/cycle. Results: For the batch study, results showed that the PKSAC works with maximum removal of pollutant at very high dosage up to 15% (w/v) in 72 h treatment time. Meanwhile, for fixed-bed treatment, POME was fed to the column with flow rate of 15 mL/min. The initial chemical oxygen demand (COD) and color of samples were in the range of 450-910 mg/L and 3500-6500 Pt/Co, respectively, and after the treatment, the maximum COD and color removal were 75% and 76%, respectively. The PKSAC became saturated after 8 treatment cycle. Conclusion: It can be concluded that the palm-based activated carbon was able to remove the organic pollutant and color of POME in both batch and continuous adsorption treatments. Being the raw material available in the palm oil mill, the PKS can be converted into activated carbon and used as sustainable practice to treat POME.
  5,865 699 16
Vishishta Composting: A Fastest Method and Ecofriendly Recipe for Preparing Compost from Parthenium hysterophorus Weed
Satish K Ameta, Surbhi Benjamin, Rakshit Ameta, Suresh C Ameta
July-September 2016, 2(3):103-108
Introduction: Parthenium hysterophorus has become a huge problem throughout the world and is menacingly threatening the agriculture and environment. The existing methods for controlling or eradicating P. hysterophorus weed have their own limitations, that is, physical methods are very laborious, costly and ineffective in long term; chemical methods are costly and less environmental friendly and biological methods are not appropriate on large scale. The compost from Parthenium weed can be prepared to recycle the nutrients that are sucked by undesired weed from the soil. Presently, the available methods take a long time in preparing Parthenium compost, while the shorter methods are mostly less ecofriendly. In the present work, a method and recipe have been developed for preparing compost of Parthenium weed in comparatively less time (60 days only) and that too, in an ecofriendly manner; and it has been named as Vishishta composting. The term ‘Vishishta’ is a Hindi word, which means ‘something special’. Materials and Methods: In the present experiment, Parthenium weed was composted using rock phosphate, Trichoderma viride fungi culture powder and different organic wastes such as cow dung, sawdust, cow dung ash, dried fallen leaves and wheat straw in a duration of 60 days using the method of Vishishta composting. Results: The P. hysterophorus compost contains more nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium and other nutrients than farmyard manure. Overall status of the nutrients as-prepared compost is appreciable. Conclusion: In the present experiment, a method and recipe have been developed for composting Parthenium weed in shortest duration as compared to earlier methods available till date.
  5,643 670 -
Biodiesel Production from Tobacco (Nicotiana Tabacum) Seed Oil
Khushbu Sharma, Madan Kumar Parangimalar Diwakar, Karunanithi Balakrishnan, Sreeja Vijayalekshmi Gopalakrishnapillai
July-December 2015, 1(2):61-65
Introduction: The health impacts due to tobacco have lead to loss of lives and economy of the country. Tobacco seed oil can be an alternative source to biodiesel. This study aims to investigate the yield of the oil from tobacco seeds of Indian origin and to compare the properties of the biodiesel produced with American Society for Testing and Materials and conventional diesel. Methods: The tobacco seeds where grounded and the oil was extracted using n-hexane as a solvent in the soxhlets apparatus. The oil extracted was subjected to trans-esterification process to be converted into biodiesel. The biodiesel produced was tested for density, viscosity, iodine value, acid value, cetane index, gross calorific value, flash point and pour point and were compared with ASTM standards and conventional diesel. Results: The yield of oil from tobacco seeds in this study was 34 percent and the biodiesel yield was 85 percent. The properties were found to be comparable with ASTM standards and conventional diesel properties. Conclusion: The properties of tobacco seed oil were comparable with ASTM standards. Tobacco seed oil of Indian origin could be a viable source of biodiesel.
  5,263 532 1
Accumulation and Translocation of Heavy Metals by Amaranthus Retroflexus
Shahrzad Khoramnejadian, Keivan Saeb
July-December 2015, 1(2):58-60
Background: Phytoremediation is an ecofriendly method that recently used for contamination removal. Aim: n this article, phytoremediation of heavy metals (Cr, Cd, Cu, and Ni) by amaranth and Persian clover has been studied. Context: Soil samples with different amount of contamination were prepared. Contaminated soil samples keep in greenhouse and Amaranthus retroflexus cultivated in polypropylene pots. Before and after cultivation soil samples heavy metal amount has been analyzed. Result and Discussion: The amount of heavy metals in soils decreased after 120 days cultivation. Accumulations of heavy metals in plant tissues were measured. Translocation factor (TF) has been calculated. TF from root to upper part of plants in the order of Cr > Cu > Ni > Cd and TF from root to upper part of plants in the order of Ni > Cr > Cd > Cu. Amaranthus were resistance among high amount of heavy metal in soils. Result indicated that Amaranthus retroflexus has a good ability to remove heavy metal from contaminated soils. Conclusion: According to resultphytoremediation by Amaranthus retroflexus is a good and economical choice for remedy contaminated site.
  4,082 573 4
Modeling Land Use/Cover Changes by the Combination of Markov Chain and Cellular Automata Markov (CA-Markov) Models
Mozhgan Ahmadi Nadoushan, Alireza Soffianian, Alireza Alebrahim
January-June 2015, 1(1):16-21
Land use/cover changes modeling is essential for land use planning and management. Arak is one of several cities in Iran which have undergone swift urban expansion during recent decades due to rapid industrialization and population growth. In this study, aerial photos and Landsat TM and IRS-P6 LISS-III images were used to predict land use/cover changes in Arak. Land use/cover maps were generated with four classes from visual interpretation of aerial photos and an artificial neural network classification method for satellite images. Both classification methods resulted in land use/cover maps with overall accuracy over 95 %. In order to predict changes, Markov chain and Cellular Automata Markov models were applied and a land use/cover map for 2025 was simulated. The results showed that the combination of satellite remote sensing, GIS and Markov models provides useful information on land use/cover dynamics in future which could be consequently used for land use planning.
  4,002 560 -
The Effect of Education on Administrators and Service Providers' Knowledge of the Family Physician Plan and Referral System in Urban Areas
Hamed Asgari, Maryam Azarnoosh, Maryam Kheirmand, Mansour Shiri, Mohsen Rohani, Mehdi Khosravi, Rasol Hemamy
July-December 2015, 1(2):47-51
Context: As one of the important changes in the health system, family physician plan, and referral system need to be taken into consideration, so as to make the administrators informed of the best ways of its implementation. Aims: This research has been carried out to study the effect of education on the knowledge level of administrators and service providers. Settings and Design: This study was analytical and interventional and conducted in Isfahan in 2012 with a statistical population of 2851 and a sample size of 118 people. Materials and Methods: This quantitative study was an interventional comparison group applying pre- and post-tests. Random sampling was used to select physicians, administrators and service providers in the family physician plan. A researcher-made questionnaire was filled out by the sample before and after the intervention, and the collected data were analyzed descriptively and inferentially. Statistical Analysis Used: The data were analyzed by using the SPSS 16 software and the mean scores of knowledge level, before and after the intervention, were compared. Demographic variables, also, were described and their relationship with the knowledge level scores was determined. A t-test was used, too. Results: The findings showed that the mean scores of knowledge level were 46.18 ΁ 15.37 before the intervention and 50.14 ΁ 14.46 after the intervention. Moreover, the t-test result, with 95% certainty, was significant (P = 0.043). Conclusion: Considering the meaningfulness of the results of t-test, it can be concluded that education has a high effect on the knowledge level of administrators and service providers. The results, also, showed that for having a more effective education, face to face education and active and practical teaching methods such as workshops and group discussions as well as different informative materials like brochures and media (radio, television and press) can be used. In addition to these factors, the age and work experience of people receiving education should be considered, too.
  2,693 1,680 -
New Approaches for the Effective Utilization of Fish Skin Wastes of Aluterus monoceros
Rethinam Senthil, Sathyaraj W Vedakumari, Thiagarajan Hemalatha, Vijayan Sumathi, Nallathambi Gobi, Thotapalli P Sastry
April-June 2016, 2(2):50-55
Context: Unicorn leatherjacket (Aluterus monoceros) is an export quality fish mainly used for fillet production, the skin of which is discarded as waste due to its toughness. Wastes emanated from the fish processing industry have become an important source of environmental pollution. Aim: The study investigates the potentials of A. monoceros skin to produce value-added products viz., fish leather and fish meal. Materials and Methods: 5 kg of fish skin from 20 kg of fish was used for the present study. Leather produced from fish skin was characterized for its physico-chemical properties using Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), etc. Biochemical components viz., protein, fat, and salt content of the fish skin were also estimated. Results: Leather produced from fish skin possessed 88 MPa tensile strength. Biochemical estimations proved that the fish skin had 28% protein content. Conclusion: On the basis of the characterization and evaluation results, it could be concluded that this processed fish skin could be used for leather goods production. In addition, this fish skin could be included as a component in fish meal preparation.
  3,889 402 3
Evaluation of Mineral Content in some Native Iranian Fenugreek (Trigonella foenum-graceum L.) Genotypes
Hossein Ali Asadi Gharneh, Saeid Davodalhosseini
January-June 2015, 1(1):38-41
Fenugreek (Trigonella foenum-graecum L.) is an annual herb is used as potherbs and spice or as herbal medicine. It is grown widely all over Iran, and its young leaves are used as fresh green as well as sun-dried for later use. In this study, seven fenugreek genotypes were planted according to randomized complete block design with three replicates. Several traits including ash, moisture content and some mineral content (P, K, Ca, Mg, Na, Fe, Mn, Zn and Cu) were measured. Results showed relatively considerable differences among studied genotypes. The levels of the Ca were ranged from 200.66 to 455.25 mg/100 g of fresh weight (gfw) while the levels of the P were ranged from 182 to 250 mg/100 gfw. The Gaz genotype had the highest content of Na and Fe while the highest content of Mg and Mn were observed in genotype Kashan (370.1 and 0.87 mg/100 gfw, respectively). The observed Ca/P ratio of Iranian fenugreek genotypes which is ranged from 0.80 to 2.0 is relatively an ideal content from a nutritional aspect. The highest Zn and Cu contents were identified in genotype Ardestan (4.1 and 2.5 mg/100 gfw, respectively). The observed difference in the nutrient composition of fenugreek genotypes corresponded to the relatively high genetic diversity found within the genotypes, which are useful for selecting specific genotypes for special purposes in breeding programs. Furthermore, some of the above genotypes could be used directly as commercial cultivars for fenugreek producers.
  3,902 368 -
Effectiveness of Teaching Recycling on the Perception Concept of Recycling in Sixth Grade Female Students
Mohammad A Nadi, Elham Aghaabedi, Hadi Radnezhad
July-September 2016, 2(3):116-121
Purpose: This study was to determine the effect of teaching recycling on the students’ perception of concept of recycling. Subjects and Methods: The method of this research was about conducting pretest and posttest for experimental and control groups. The sample consisted of 60 sixth-grade girls from district four of Isfahan from a population of 1000 who were systematically randomly selected and randomly placed in the experimental group and control group. The subjects of the experimental group received the necessary training during 8 one-hourly sessions through the educational book of principles and methods of recycling. A researcher-made questionnaire was used in this study. The reliability of the questionnaire was 1 and its validity was 0.809. The collected data were analyzed based on descriptive method (mean, standard deviation, percentage, etc.) and analytical method (analysis of covariance). Result: The findings of this study revealed that teaching recycling had an effect on the perception of the concept of recycling, paper recycling, glass recycling, metal recycling and also on identifying those who help people collect recyclable garbage (P < 0.001). But teaching recycling had no effects on the perception of the concept of garbage and the importance of recycling, plastic and the concept of garbage recycling (P < 0.001).
  3,854 354 -
Investigating the Environmental Skill, Attitude, and Knowledge of Bojnourd Islamic Azad University Students
Mahboube Soleimanpour Omran, Marzieh Ostadi Iraj, Mohammad Hossein Yarmohammadian
January-March 2016, 2(1):28-33
Introduction: The main causes of increased environmental crisis are miseducation and lack of environmental education. Objective: The purpose of this research is investigating environmental skill, attitude, and knowledge of Bojnourd Islamic Azad University students during the academic year 2013-2014. Materials and Methods: It research method is descriptive-survey. Number of studying students has been 5570; through Cochran formula estimated sample size has calculated to 359 who have been chosen by random-stratified method. Furthermore, it is noteworthy that to collect data measuring Environmental behavior standard questionnaire of Omran and Mohamadi (2008) has been used which its Cronbach alpha has been calculated 0.732; it indicate that the questionnaire has reliability. The validity of this questionnaire has been previously approved and implemented to analysis data SPSS 21 software has been used after collecting questionnaires. After investigating data normality through Kolmogorov-Smirnov and confirming used scale, hypotheses have been analyzed by one-sample t-test. Then relations statuses between dimensions and research variables according to respondents view have been analyzed. Results: Results have indicated that significance level of knowledge, attitude, and skill variables among Bojnord Islamic Azad University students is more than average and < 5%; with 95% confidence it can be claimed that all hypotheses have been approved (standard value). Conclusions: The environmental skill, attitude, and knowledge are desirable in Bojnourd Islamic Azad University students.
  3,692 341 1
Effect of Mineral and Organic Nutrient Management on Sweet Corn Production System in Acid Lateritic Soil of India
Kanu Murmu, Dillip K Swain, Bijoy C Ghosh
April-June 2016, 2(2):70-76
Introduction: Nutrient management plays a key role in improving crop yield with maintenance of soil fertility for sustainable production in intensive cropping. Aim: A field experiment was conducted to study the effect of organic and mineral sources of fertilizer on yield and quality of sweet corn grown in acid laterite soil of India during the years 2009 and 2010. Materials and Methods: The organic inputs were vermicompost (VC), vermiwash (VW), biofertilizer (BF), and crop residue (CR) and the inorganic input was mineral fertilizer. Results: Optimal application of N, P, and K (100% recommended dose) either through organic source or mineral source was significantly superior to their suboptimal dose in increasing the yield of sweet corn, wherein mineral fertilizer recorded maximum production. Between organic and mineral sources of fertilizer application, ascorbic acid and total phenolics content of sweet corm were higher in organic nutrient management. The ascorbic acid was higher by 133% in VC100 and 37% in VC50 + CF50 compared to mineral (CF100) treatment. But crude protein content was low by 13.5% in VC100 and 2.9% in VC50 + CF50, respectively, as compared to CF100 treatment. Organic carbon content and pH of the acid lateritic soil were improved in organic nutrient management as compared to mineral fertilizer. Conclusion: Organic fertilizer application, therefore, exhibited potential in improving sweet corn yield and quality and soil health in acid lateritic soil of the subtropical climate.
  3,603 359 -
The Effects of Different Pomegranate Wastes, Poultry Manure and Cow Sludge Ratios on Biogas Production
Shokoofeh Farazandemehr, Hadi Radnezhad, Mohsen Nourouzi
July-September 2016, 2(3):129-134
Context: Anaerobic digestion of organic waste is one of the efficient ways to reduce methane emissions in atmosphere and produce pure bio-methane for fuel consumptions. Aims: In this study, the effects of pomegranate wastes, poultry manure, and cow sludge treated with various ratios of respectively 60, 13, and 27% (T1), 89, 0, and 11% (T2), 28, 28, and 44% (T3), and 0, 34, and 66% (T4) were investigated. Evaluation of the pH, total solids (TS), volatile solids (VS), and the ratio of carbon-to-nitrogen (C:N) parameters on the digestion yield in the optimal treatment was another objective of this study. Materials and Methods: The waste concentration (7%) was evaluated based on the TS and over a period of 15 days on the performance of anaerobic digestion. Furthermore, a pretreatment of thermal–chemical processing (boiling in acetic acid and nitric acid) was considered to remove lignin from pomegranate peels. The process of anaerobic digestion was divided into four stages of the setting up, including startup period, the first stage of the stabilization period, the second phase of the stabilization period, and the consolidation phase. Results: The results showed that there was a significant difference in biogas production between the T3 with efficiency of 0.50 L/gr VS and cumulative biogas production value of 5885 ml/day and the T2 with efficiency of 0.60 L/gr VS and cumulative biogas production value of 718 ml/day. The third treatment (T3) was detected as the optimum. In this treatment, the superior performance of anaerobic digestion in the days of third to ninth of the experiment led the highest removing percentage of VS. The C:N ratio remained in the optimal range during the experimental period. Conclusion: The results of this study in a laboratory scale for biogas production appear to be a challenging process so that the substrate composition had a great influence on the performance.
  3,592 301 -
The Effect of Different Bed Compositions on Sod Characteristics in Production and Establishment Stages
Fatemeh Ahmadian Vala, Davood Naderi, Masoud Ghasemi Ghahsareh
January-June 2015, 1(1):32-37
Nowadays, many investigations are done on plants waste that can be used as bio soil amendments. The use of biological fertilizers instead of chemical ones has been considered widely because of environmental issues importance. Cultivation beds have some influence on both stability and quality of sod. The current study was done to assess the impact of 5 soil compounds on two steps of bermudagrass sod production (cultivation in cartonplast and establishment) as a completely randomized design with three replicates. The soil compounds were clay, sand and spent mushroom compost in different compositions. Our results showed that at the time of lawn cultivation in cartonplast, the highest clipping fresh and dry weight and the best plant density were related to clay + spent mushroom compost (1:1) (v.v). We also found that the best color quality was related to clay + spent mushroom compost (1:1) (v.v), sand + spent mushroom compost (1:1) (v.v), clay + sand + spent mushroom compost (1:1:1) (v.v.v) bed while the lowest height of shoots was related to clay + sand (1:1) (v.v). In the second phase of the experiments, the highest clipping fresh and dry weight was related to clay + spent mushroom compost (1:1) (v.v), sand + spent mushroom compost (1:1) (v.v) bed. The highest shoots height was related to those beds too. The lowest establishment time was related to sand + spent mushroom compost (1:1) (v.v) bed. Finally, our results showed that spent mushroom compost can be used as a useful organic fertilizer which improves soil physical and chemical characteristics.
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The Role of Different Hormones on Some Vegetative and Reproductive Traits of Carnation (Dianthus caryophyllus L.)
Davood Naderi, Shahrzad Rohani
January-March 2016, 2(1):10-14
Aim: Carnation (Dianthus caryophyllus L.) is most famous for its use as a cut flower. This research was carried out in the research greenhouse of Islamic Azad University, Isfahan (Khorasgan) branch, to investigate the effect of different hormones on some vegetative and reproductive traits of carnation. Settings and Design: The experimental design was completely randomized design. Materials and Methods: Using different hormonal treatments included indole-3-buteric acid (IBA) (1,000 ppm, 2,000 ppm, 2,500 ppm, and 3,000 ppm), potassium salt of indole-3-butyric acid (KIBA) (1,000 ppm, 2,000 ppm, 2,500 ppm, and 3,000 ppm), and no treatment as control with three replications. Stem cuttings of carnation were supplied from "Pink Nelson." The cuttings were exposed to different hormones for 10 s, and they were grown in coco peat+perlite (50%+50%) media. Plant irrigation was done with fogger systems. Some characteristics of the plant, such as the number of flowers, flower diameter, number of internodes, number of buds, flower stem length, number of leaves, and weight of aerial parts and root, were determined. Results: Statistical analysis showed that the number of flowers and weight of root of the plants treated with IBA and KIBA hormones were far greater compared to that of the controls. The highest of flower number, flower diameter, fresh and dry weight of root was obtained from IBA 2,000 ppm. The number of buds was significantly increased by the application of IBA at 1000 ppm and 2,000 ppm. And, KIBA at 1,000 ppm can increase the stem length of the flowers. Conclusion: Based on these results, it is suggested that the application of IBA and KIBA hormones improved quality of carnation flowers.
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Interactive Effects of Vermicompost and Salicylic Acid on Chlorophyll and Carotenoid Contents of Petunia Hybrid Under Drought Stress
Marziyeh Saberi, Forogh Mortazaei Nezhad, Nemat-allah Etemadi
July-December 2015, 1(2):52-57
Aims: This study was conducted to investigate the effects vermicompost, drought stress, and salicylic acid on chlorophyll and carotenoid contents of petunia plants. Materials and Methods: Experimental treatments were drought stress including two levels with and without stress, four salicylic acid concentrations including 0, 50, 100, and 200 ppm and three levels of vermicompost (0, 10, and 20% w/w). The experiment was carried out as a completely randomized design with 3 replications. The application of vermicompost resulted in significant increases in contents of chlorophyll a, total chlorophyll and carotenoid compared to control. The content of chlorophyll a and total chlorophyll in 50 ppm salicylic acid was significantly greater than that in other treatments. However, the chlorophyll b and carotenoid content was lower in the in 100 ppm salicylic acid than in other treatments. Results: The results indicated that drought stress significantly reduced these pigments. The highest the content of chlorophyll a was observed at the rate of 10% vermicompost, 50 ppm salicylic acid, and no-stress condition. The treatment of 200 ppm salicylic acid at no-stress condition and rate of 20% vermicompost had the highest of chlorophyll b content. The highest the content of total chlorophyll was observed at the rate of 10% vermicompost, 50 ppm salicylic acid, and no-stress condition. The treatment of without salicylic acid and vermicompost at stress condition had the highest of carotenoid content. Based on the results of this experiment, application of salicylic acid and vermicompost improved the contents of chlorophyll a, total chlorophyll, and carotenoid of Persian petunia under drought conditions.
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Saltgrass, a Minimum Water and Nutrient Requirement Halophytic Plant Species for Sustainable Agriculture in Desert Regions
Mohammad Pessarakli
January-March 2016, 2(1):21-27
Context: Desertification of arable lands due to global warming and water shortage mandates use of low-quality water for irrigation. Using low-quality water imposes more stress on plants which are already under stress. Thus, there is an urgent need for finding stress tolerant plant species to survive/sustain under such stressful conditions. Since the native plants are already growing under such conditions and are adapted to these stresses, they are the most suitable candidates to be manipulated under the minimum cultural practices and minimum inputs for use under stress. If stress tolerant species/genotypes of the native plants are identified, there would be a substantial savings in cultural practices and inputs in using them. Aim: This grass has multi usages, including animal feed, soil conservation, saline soils reclamation, use in desert landscaping, and combating desertification. The objectives of this study were to find the most salinity and drought tolerant of various saltgrass genotypes for use in arid regions, where limited water supplies coupled with saline soils result in drought and salinity stresses. Materials and Methods: Various genotypes of saltgrass were studied in a greenhouse either hydroponically in culture solution for salt tolerance or in large galvanized cans contained fritted clay for drought tolerance. For the salinity stress tolerance, twelve inland saltgrass clones were studied in a greenhouse, using hydroponics technique to evaluate their growth responses under salt stress. Four salt treatments (EC 6, 20, 34, and 48 dS/m salinity stress) were replicated 3 times in a randomized complete block design experiment. Grasses were grown under these conditions for 10 weeks. During this period, shoots were clipped bi-weekly, clippings were oven dried at 75°C and dry matter (DM) weights were recorded, shoot and root lengths were also measured. At the last harvest, roots were also harvested, oven dried, and DM weights were determined. Grass quality was weekly evaluated and recorded. Although all the grasses showed a high level of salinity tolerance, there was a wide range of variations observed in salt tolerance of these saltgrass clones. For the drought tolerance study, 21 saltgrass clones were studied to evaluate their growth responses under drought stress. Plants were grown under normal condition for 6 months for complete establishment. Then, they were deprived from water for 4 months. Plant shoots were harvested weekly and oven dried at 75°C for DM weight determination. At each harvest, percentages of plant green covers were also estimated and recorded. Both the shoot dry weights and the percent of plant visual green cover decreased as drought period progressed. Results: Although all the grasses exhibited a high level of drought tolerance, there was a wide range of variations observed in various clones' responses. The superior salinity and drought stress tolerant genotypes were identified to be used for biological salinity control or reclamation of desert saline soils and combating desertification. Conclusion: My investigations at the University of Arizona on saltgrass (Distichlis spicata L.), a halophytic plant species, have indicated that this plant has an excellent drought and salinity tolerance with a great potential to be used under harsh environmental conditions.
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The Efficacy of the Seeds of Adansonia digitata L. as a Biocoagulant and Disinfectant in Water Purification
Ocholi PR Edogbanya, David S Abolude, Matthew A Adelanwa, Odike J Ocholi
July-September 2016, 2(3):122-128
Context: Water is an essential commodity for the sustenance of life, yet its availability is drastically reducing due to pollution. The conventional methods used for the treatment of water is relatively expensive and not readily available and hence the need for alternative sustainable means of water treatment. Aim: The aim of the study was to evaluate the efficacy of Adansonia digitata L. seeds as a biocoagulant and disinfectant in the purification of water. Materials and Methods: Dried fruits of A. digitata were collected from the Department of Biological Sciences, Ahmadu Bello University, Zaria. The seeds were excised, washed, sun-dried, powdered and defatted using n-hexane. Synthetic turbid water used for the biocoagulant study was prepared using beneficiated kaolin while that used for disinfection studies was prepared using Escherichia coli isolate. Surface water was also used for the study and was obtained from the Kubanni Reservoir, Ahmadu Bello University, Zaria. The experimental design was complete randomized design (CRD). Experiments were performed in triplicates using 0 mg/L (control), 50 mg/L, 100 mg/L, 150 mg/L and 200 mg/L of A. digitata seed extract. Statistical Analysis: One-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) was used to compare the means of the various parameters measured. Duncan Multiple Range Test (DMRT) was used in separating means where significant. The level of significance was taken at P < 0.05. Results: Results revealed that as a biocoagulant, an optimum dose of 150 mg/L was able to reduce turbidity of synthetic water significantly (P < 0.05) by 96.7% while there was no significant reduction in the turbidity of surface water. As a disinfectant, a dose of 200 mg/L was able to significantly reduce (P < 0.05) the concentration of E. coli of synthetic water from 1.65 × 104 cfu/mL to 5.00 × 102 cfu/mL (97.0%) and that of surface water from 4.27 × 102 cfu/mL to 6.67 × 101 cfu/mL (84.4%). Conclusion: From the investigations done, A. digitata seeds possess biocoagulant and disinfectant potentials, which may be harnessed for water purification.
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