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   2015| July-December  | Volume 1 | Issue 2  
    Online since November 27, 2015

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Evaluation of Sustainable Development Indicators (Social and Environmental): A Case Study - Parand Industrial Town
Fatemeh Razavian, Mehrnoosh Jafari
July-December 2015, 1(2):43-46
Introduction: Currently, cities are responsible to provide rapidly growing population with housing, job, and services. In practice, sustainable development approach can be considered in the utilization of natural resources (renewable and nonrenewable), efficient and optimal utilization of resources, less environmental pollution, and sustainable society. Objective: The purpose of this study is to determine the factors effective on indicators of sustainable development and evaluate sustainable development in Parand Industrial Town. Materials and Methods: This study used an applied descriptive survey. Participants of this study included residents of Parand Town. Sample size (384) was calculated by Krejcie and Morgan Table using simple random sampling method. The collected data were analyzed by descriptive and analytic statistics including mean, median, and t-test. Results: Findings showed that sustainable development indicators (social and environmental) were evaluated average and above in Parand Industrial Town. Conclusions: Urban management is recommended to consider the above indicators to promote the development in Parand Town.
  3,277 4,078 -
Biodiesel Production from Tobacco (Nicotiana Tabacum) Seed Oil
Khushbu Sharma, Madan Kumar Parangimalar Diwakar, Karunanithi Balakrishnan, Sreeja Vijayalekshmi Gopalakrishnapillai
July-December 2015, 1(2):61-65
Introduction: The health impacts due to tobacco have lead to loss of lives and economy of the country. Tobacco seed oil can be an alternative source to biodiesel. This study aims to investigate the yield of the oil from tobacco seeds of Indian origin and to compare the properties of the biodiesel produced with American Society for Testing and Materials and conventional diesel. Methods: The tobacco seeds where grounded and the oil was extracted using n-hexane as a solvent in the soxhlets apparatus. The oil extracted was subjected to trans-esterification process to be converted into biodiesel. The biodiesel produced was tested for density, viscosity, iodine value, acid value, cetane index, gross calorific value, flash point and pour point and were compared with ASTM standards and conventional diesel. Results: The yield of oil from tobacco seeds in this study was 34 percent and the biodiesel yield was 85 percent. The properties were found to be comparable with ASTM standards and conventional diesel properties. Conclusion: The properties of tobacco seed oil were comparable with ASTM standards. Tobacco seed oil of Indian origin could be a viable source of biodiesel.
  6,379 602 1
Accumulation and Translocation of Heavy Metals by Amaranthus Retroflexus
Shahrzad Khoramnejadian, Keivan Saeb
July-December 2015, 1(2):58-60
Background: Phytoremediation is an ecofriendly method that recently used for contamination removal. Aim: n this article, phytoremediation of heavy metals (Cr, Cd, Cu, and Ni) by amaranth and Persian clover has been studied. Context: Soil samples with different amount of contamination were prepared. Contaminated soil samples keep in greenhouse and Amaranthus retroflexus cultivated in polypropylene pots. Before and after cultivation soil samples heavy metal amount has been analyzed. Result and Discussion: The amount of heavy metals in soils decreased after 120 days cultivation. Accumulations of heavy metals in plant tissues were measured. Translocation factor (TF) has been calculated. TF from root to upper part of plants in the order of Cr > Cu > Ni > Cd and TF from root to upper part of plants in the order of Ni > Cr > Cd > Cu. Amaranthus were resistance among high amount of heavy metal in soils. Result indicated that Amaranthus retroflexus has a good ability to remove heavy metal from contaminated soils. Conclusion: According to resultphytoremediation by Amaranthus retroflexus is a good and economical choice for remedy contaminated site.
  4,948 627 4
The Effect of Education on Administrators and Service Providers' Knowledge of the Family Physician Plan and Referral System in Urban Areas
Hamed Asgari, Maryam Azarnoosh, Maryam Kheirmand, Mansour Shiri, Mohsen Rohani, Mehdi Khosravi, Rasol Hemamy
July-December 2015, 1(2):47-51
Context: As one of the important changes in the health system, family physician plan, and referral system need to be taken into consideration, so as to make the administrators informed of the best ways of its implementation. Aims: This research has been carried out to study the effect of education on the knowledge level of administrators and service providers. Settings and Design: This study was analytical and interventional and conducted in Isfahan in 2012 with a statistical population of 2851 and a sample size of 118 people. Materials and Methods: This quantitative study was an interventional comparison group applying pre- and post-tests. Random sampling was used to select physicians, administrators and service providers in the family physician plan. A researcher-made questionnaire was filled out by the sample before and after the intervention, and the collected data were analyzed descriptively and inferentially. Statistical Analysis Used: The data were analyzed by using the SPSS 16 software and the mean scores of knowledge level, before and after the intervention, were compared. Demographic variables, also, were described and their relationship with the knowledge level scores was determined. A t-test was used, too. Results: The findings showed that the mean scores of knowledge level were 46.18 ΁ 15.37 before the intervention and 50.14 ΁ 14.46 after the intervention. Moreover, the t-test result, with 95% certainty, was significant (P = 0.043). Conclusion: Considering the meaningfulness of the results of t-test, it can be concluded that education has a high effect on the knowledge level of administrators and service providers. The results, also, showed that for having a more effective education, face to face education and active and practical teaching methods such as workshops and group discussions as well as different informative materials like brochures and media (radio, television and press) can be used. In addition to these factors, the age and work experience of people receiving education should be considered, too.
  3,355 1,732 -
Interactive Effects of Vermicompost and Salicylic Acid on Chlorophyll and Carotenoid Contents of Petunia Hybrid Under Drought Stress
Marziyeh Saberi, Forogh Mortazaei Nezhad, Nemat-allah Etemadi
July-December 2015, 1(2):52-57
Aims: This study was conducted to investigate the effects vermicompost, drought stress, and salicylic acid on chlorophyll and carotenoid contents of petunia plants. Materials and Methods: Experimental treatments were drought stress including two levels with and without stress, four salicylic acid concentrations including 0, 50, 100, and 200 ppm and three levels of vermicompost (0, 10, and 20% w/w). The experiment was carried out as a completely randomized design with 3 replications. The application of vermicompost resulted in significant increases in contents of chlorophyll a, total chlorophyll and carotenoid compared to control. The content of chlorophyll a and total chlorophyll in 50 ppm salicylic acid was significantly greater than that in other treatments. However, the chlorophyll b and carotenoid content was lower in the in 100 ppm salicylic acid than in other treatments. Results: The results indicated that drought stress significantly reduced these pigments. The highest the content of chlorophyll a was observed at the rate of 10% vermicompost, 50 ppm salicylic acid, and no-stress condition. The treatment of 200 ppm salicylic acid at no-stress condition and rate of 20% vermicompost had the highest of chlorophyll b content. The highest the content of total chlorophyll was observed at the rate of 10% vermicompost, 50 ppm salicylic acid, and no-stress condition. The treatment of without salicylic acid and vermicompost at stress condition had the highest of carotenoid content. Based on the results of this experiment, application of salicylic acid and vermicompost improved the contents of chlorophyll a, total chlorophyll, and carotenoid of Persian petunia under drought conditions.
  3,934 713 2
Effect of Biological and Organic Fertilizers on the Growth Parameters of Salvia Officinalis
Hadi Radnezhad, Maryam Foroughi Abari, Masoumeh Sadeghi
July-December 2015, 1(2):71-75
Context: This study examined the effect of biological and organic fertilizers on the growth parameters of an herb named Salvia officinalis. Settings and Design: Its characteristics include germination, number of leaves, length, and dry weight of root and shoot. A total of 11 treatments (4 replications) including a vermicompost treatment and a cow manure treatment (both at 25% and 50% levels); four vermicompost treatments of 25% and 50% levels mixed with Azotobacter and Azospirillum and three treatments of Azotobacter, Azospirillum, and control constituted the focal point of the study. Results: The results obtained from the statistical analyses performed at P ≤ 0.05 are as follows: (1) Azospirillum and 50% cow manure treatments had the most and least significant effects on germination and root length, respectively; (2) once combined with Azospirillum, 25% vermicompost treatment affected the length of the root and shoot more significantly compared to the vermicompost and Azospirillum treatments delivered individually; (3) the number of leaves and dry weight of root and shoot were not significantly different across the treatments; and (4) 25% vermicompost and 50% cow manure and Azospirillum treatments exerted the maximum influence upon the number of leaves and the dry weight of shoot and root. Conclusion: Although treatments had different effects, they were not significantly different. The 25% vermicompost treatment had a better effect than its 50% level counterpart.
  3,917 364 1
Syncretist Effect of Organic and Chemical Fertilizers on Quantitative and Qualitative Properties of Spinach
Shiva Abdollahi, Mehrdad Jafarpour
July-December 2015, 1(2):76-80
Aim: Spinach is one of the foliage vegetables from the beet family. This plant originated from Iran and is very important. In the current study, the syncretist effects of organic and chemical fertilizers on quantitative and qualitative properties of spinach were evaluated in the research center of the Islamic Azad University of Khorasgan. Materials and Methods: Treatments included horse compost, horse vermin compost, chicken compost, mushroom compost, mushroom vermin compost, mushroom vermin compost plus mushroom compost, chemical fertilizer, and soil without any fertilizer as the control group. All treatments were reported 4 times in 64 plots and each plot divided into two parts (8% and 12% of organic fertilizer). Conclusion: Our findings showed that the highest amount of Vitamin C and chlorophyll was in the control group. We also found that the highest amount of solid soluble content and pH were in 12% horse compost (9.3) and 8% horse compost (8), respectively. The application of organic fertilizers instead of chemical fertilizers not only increases the quality of product and improve the performance but also causes a permanent production.
  3,817 331 -
The Assessment of Carrying-Capacity of Persian Gazelle in Sorkh-E-Hesar National Park, Iran
Elmira Kazemi Jahandizi, Mohammad Kaboli, Mahmoud Karami, Mahmoud Soufi
July-December 2015, 1(2):66-70
Introduction: Understanding food resources of large herbivores and their interactions with habitat is crucial for effective wildlife conservation in arid environments. However, the carrying capacity (CC) value may be influenced by a variety of human-induced perturbations, e.g., habitat fragmentation and potential competitors. The goitered gazelle (Gazella subgutturosa) inhabits a wide range of semi-desert and desert habitats in Iran. Materials and Methods: To estimate the CC of the species in Sorkh-e-Hesar National Park (SHNP), four different habitats were surveyed during the winter period in 2011-2012. The grazing behavior was recorded by direct observations. The grazing spots were identified and studied for vegetation types in 6 sites. In total, 80 plots and 10 T-square random points were sampled. Results: About 15 herbal species were identified in gazelle diet, with the main contribution of the family Poaceae. Dry weight and density of herbal species preferred by the gazelle were estimated. Moreover, the nutritional CC of the habitats and available forage during the winter period was determined using the cutting-weighting technique. The CC value of the goitered gazelle population was estimated as 56-107 individuals over 91.68 km 2 (0.62-1.17 individuals/km 2 ), which was estimated with the inclusion and exclusion of competitive herbivorous species, respectively.
  3,706 300 -